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  • Raptor Engine continued …

2 days back we covered the Layman's explanation of "What is full-flow staged combustion cycle" of Raptor Engine. Let's build on it further. 

The two pre-burners of Raptor Engine operate at non-optimum fuel to oxygen ratio. One being fuel-rich and other being oxygen-rich, powering the respective pumps. Fuel being used is Methane.

Q: Why Methane?

A: For the fuel-rich pre-burner, RP-1 can't be used as the exhaust (which has to go through the combustion chamber is not clean, with a significant presence of unburnt carbon. The other alternative Hydrogen requires higher volume tanks due to much lesser density and high molar ratios needed for combining with one unit of Oxygen. Methane gives cleaner exhaust and is closer to RP1 in density and fuel-oxygen ratios. Further in many other parameters, Methane performs in between RP1 and Hydrogen.

The other thought of the possibility of Methane being easy to manufacture on Mars by Sabatier process (used in ISS), while true, is not necessarily the cited reason.

Q: Is it best?

A: See, whatever SpaceX does (and will do), people will find a reason to say that their engine is the best & nothing could be better. When Merlin came out, a ton of articles was highlighting the best features (Thrust to weight) of that and now the same happens for Raptor (high thrust).

The thing to keep in mind is - for their specific requirement of a reliable, low cost, cheaper fuel, availability, they have "found" raptor to be "best suited" for. That doesn't make it "THE BEST". For example, when Merlin came out, many of you might not have even heard of chamber pressure thing. And now for Raptor, the highest chamber pressure is praised everywhere. (Merlin has got one of the lowest value for that)

Q: What is chamber pressure?

A: Consider it as the average pressure before the throat. Where it is exactly measured - at the tip of the injector or before combustion or after combustion - varies from firm to firm. F-1 measured at injector end. The important thing is higher the value, higher the thrust with potential to decrease engine size.

Send us your questions. We will continue on with Starship Development series.
  • Raptor Engine continued …

    2 days back we covered the Layman's explanation of "What is full-flow staged combustion cycle" of Raptor Engine. Let's build on it further.

    The two pre-burners of Raptor Engine operate at non-optimum fuel to oxygen ratio. One being fuel-rich and other being oxygen-rich, powering the respective pumps. Fuel being used is Methane.

    Q: Why Methane?

    A: For the fuel-rich pre-burner, RP-1 can't be used as the exhaust (which has to go through the combustion chamber is not clean, with a significant presence of unburnt carbon. The other alternative Hydrogen requires higher volume tanks due to much lesser density and high molar ratios needed for combining with one unit of Oxygen. Methane gives cleaner exhaust and is closer to RP1 in density and fuel-oxygen ratios. Further in many other parameters, Methane performs in between RP1 and Hydrogen.

    The other thought of the possibility of Methane being easy to manufacture on Mars by Sabatier process (used in ISS), while true, is not necessarily the cited reason.

    Q: Is it best?

    A: See, whatever SpaceX does (and will do), people will find a reason to say that their engine is the best & nothing could be better. When Merlin came out, a ton of articles was highlighting the best features (Thrust to weight) of that and now the same happens for Raptor (high thrust).

    The thing to keep in mind is - for their specific requirement of a reliable, low cost, cheaper fuel, availability, they have "found" raptor to be "best suited" for. That doesn't make it "THE BEST". For example, when Merlin came out, many of you might not have even heard of chamber pressure thing. And now for Raptor, the highest chamber pressure is praised everywhere. (Merlin has got one of the lowest value for that)

    Q: What is chamber pressure?

    A: Consider it as the average pressure before the throat. Where it is exactly measured - at the tip of the injector or before combustion or after combustion - varies from firm to firm. F-1 measured at injector end. The important thing is higher the value, higher the thrust with potential to decrease engine size.

    Send us your questions. We will continue on with Starship Development series.

  •  1,275  12  8 hours ago
  • Beautiful work done by a reddit user eliseimaslov. (If any one knows his/her Instagram, please let us know). 

We answered most of the questions asked in previous post on Raptor engine. Some great discussions were led by @astro_pratham_.jd, @umang_sudani, @popilrumeno, @swp_propulsion_systems. Great work guys.

From tomorrow we will continue on this series on Starship Development. Feel free to suggest topics and posts to cover.

Happy learning. :-) 
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.
~~
Check link in bio for 👇👇
📚 📚 📚 📚
Free ebook on Falcon 9.
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#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Beautiful work done by a reddit user eliseimaslov. (If any one knows his/her Instagram, please let us know).

    We answered most of the questions asked in previous post on Raptor engine. Some great discussions were led by @astro_pratham_.jd, @umang_sudani, @popilrumeno, @swp_propulsion_systems. Great work guys.

    From tomorrow we will continue on this series on Starship Development. Feel free to suggest topics and posts to cover.

    Happy learning. :-)
    .
    .
    .
    ~~
    Check link in bio for 👇👇
    📚 📚 📚 📚
    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
    🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
    Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
    ♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
    Playing cards on Rocket Science.
    📧 📧 📧 📧
    Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
    >>>>>
    And also our Telgram Channel.

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  2,653  38  8 August, 2020
  • Yesterday, we covered the meaning and working of full-flow staged combustion engine cycle which the Raptor engine has got.

We invite you to ask any question related to this - Raptor Engine, Staged combustion, Combustion cycles, Starhopper. Put it in comments. We will answer it.
.
.
.
~~
Check link in bio for 👇👇
📚 📚 📚 📚
Free ebook on Falcon 9.
🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
Playing cards on Rocket Science.
📧 📧 📧 📧
Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
>>>>>
And also our Telgram Channel.

#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Yesterday, we covered the meaning and working of full-flow staged combustion engine cycle which the Raptor engine has got.

    We invite you to ask any question related to this - Raptor Engine, Staged combustion, Combustion cycles, Starhopper. Put it in comments. We will answer it.
    .
    .
    .
    ~~
    Check link in bio for 👇👇
    📚 📚 📚 📚
    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
    🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
    Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
    ♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
    Playing cards on Rocket Science.
    📧 📧 📧 📧
    Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
    >>>>>
    And also our Telgram Channel.

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  1,012  145  7 August, 2020
  • Let us learn Raptor Engine's Full-flow staged combustion, from basics.

First: Staged Combustion (Closed Cycle)

You have got two propellants. Fuel & Oxygen. In their independent cylinders. They both have to meet in combustion chamber to ignite and produce a massive amount of thrust. So we connect high-pressure pumps which pump the propellants out to meet down the line in the combustion chamber. Now the pumps also need energy to run. So, we bring an intermediate "stage". The pumps, pump the propellant to pre-burner — a mini-engine. Here a mini-combustion happens which then runs a turbine and this turbine powers the pumps and makes everything above go in a cycle.

Let's build on this further.

In the combustion chamber, the ratio of propellants is kept optimum. To utilize the right amount of oxygen to burn the complete fuel. This optimisation if done in the mini-engine will lead to a very high temperature, which would pose a difficulty for the turbine and min-engine. So what we do is, force a non-optimum propellant ratio go through the pre-burner. Send all of the one propellant and a tiny amount of other. So the pre-burner is either Fuel rich or Oxygen rich.

After the pre-burner runs the turbine, the entire exhaust is forced to go through the combustion chamber, so that whatever "extra" propellant it was having, undergoes combustion. This is called Propellant-rich staged combustion. The propellant can be fuel/oxygen.

Let's build further.

Until now we are having one preburner (mini-engine) pumping both propellants. In some cases, the amount of fuel & propellant needed to be pumped can be quite similar and for some it can be very different. For the later case, each will need its own pre-burner. So, now there can be two engine types. One having the same propellant rich pre-burner for both the pumps or having fuel-rich pre-burner for fuel pump and oxygen rich pre-burner for oxygen pump. The first case is called "Propellant-rich dual shaft/burner staged combustion" and the second case is called "Full flow staged combustion".

I hope the above was clear. Feel free to ask questions. Pros & cons of each type will be in next post.
  • Let us learn Raptor Engine's Full-flow staged combustion, from basics.

    First: Staged Combustion (Closed Cycle)

    You have got two propellants. Fuel & Oxygen. In their independent cylinders. They both have to meet in combustion chamber to ignite and produce a massive amount of thrust. So we connect high-pressure pumps which pump the propellants out to meet down the line in the combustion chamber. Now the pumps also need energy to run. So, we bring an intermediate "stage". The pumps, pump the propellant to pre-burner — a mini-engine. Here a mini-combustion happens which then runs a turbine and this turbine powers the pumps and makes everything above go in a cycle.

    Let's build on this further.

    In the combustion chamber, the ratio of propellants is kept optimum. To utilize the right amount of oxygen to burn the complete fuel. This optimisation if done in the mini-engine will lead to a very high temperature, which would pose a difficulty for the turbine and min-engine. So what we do is, force a non-optimum propellant ratio go through the pre-burner. Send all of the one propellant and a tiny amount of other. So the pre-burner is either Fuel rich or Oxygen rich.

    After the pre-burner runs the turbine, the entire exhaust is forced to go through the combustion chamber, so that whatever "extra" propellant it was having, undergoes combustion. This is called Propellant-rich staged combustion. The propellant can be fuel/oxygen.

    Let's build further.

    Until now we are having one preburner (mini-engine) pumping both propellants. In some cases, the amount of fuel & propellant needed to be pumped can be quite similar and for some it can be very different. For the later case, each will need its own pre-burner. So, now there can be two engine types. One having the same propellant rich pre-burner for both the pumps or having fuel-rich pre-burner for fuel pump and oxygen rich pre-burner for oxygen pump. The first case is called "Propellant-rich dual shaft/burner staged combustion" and the second case is called "Full flow staged combustion".

    I hope the above was clear. Feel free to ask questions. Pros & cons of each type will be in next post.

  •  1,916  39  6 August, 2020
  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

Starship Development Series, Part 1

The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "
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Follow @officialspacecuriosity for more space stories
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#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

    Starship Development Series, Part 1

    The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

    The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

    Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "
    .
    .
    .
    Follow @officialspacecuriosity for more space stories
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    .
    .
    .

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  54  0  6 August, 2020
  • "UX ist keine Rocket Science" 🚀 Mit der Frage, warum das Meme vom ersten bemannten SpaceX-Dragon-Start rein gar nichts über die User Experience aussagt, hat sich unser UX-Team im neuen Blogbeitrag auseinandergesetzt. Vielleicht kennt der ein oder andere das Bild, auf dem die Cockpits der drei vermutlich bekanntesten Raketen zu sehen sind: Saturn V, Space Shuttle und Dragon2. Spannend ist, dass darauf nicht nur der Fortschritt in der Raumfahrttechnik zu sehen sein soll, sondern auch der im User Experience Design. Ob das wirklich so ist, erfährst du im neuen Blogpost. Du findest ihn über den Link in unserer Biografie oder direkt über medium.com/enpit-ux-blog. Viel Spaß beim lesen!
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#blogbeitrag #blogpost #lesespaß #mehrlesen #userexperience #raktentechnik #rocketsience #rocketslove #galaxies #spacestation #rocketexperience #spacex #spaceflight #spacememe #usability #nutzerfreudlichkeit #rocketengine #cockpit #learnmore #consulting #coaching #beinnovative #paderborn #bielefeld #ostwestfalen #raketenstart
  • "UX ist keine Rocket Science" 🚀 Mit der Frage, warum das Meme vom ersten bemannten SpaceX-Dragon-Start rein gar nichts über die User Experience aussagt, hat sich unser UX-Team im neuen Blogbeitrag auseinandergesetzt. Vielleicht kennt der ein oder andere das Bild, auf dem die Cockpits der drei vermutlich bekanntesten Raketen zu sehen sind: Saturn V, Space Shuttle und Dragon2. Spannend ist, dass darauf nicht nur der Fortschritt in der Raumfahrttechnik zu sehen sein soll, sondern auch der im User Experience Design. Ob das wirklich so ist, erfährst du im neuen Blogpost. Du findest ihn über den Link in unserer Biografie oder direkt über medium.com/enpit-ux-blog. Viel Spaß beim lesen!
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    #blogbeitrag #blogpost #lesespaß #mehrlesen #userexperience #raktentechnik #rocketsience #rocketslove #galaxies #spacestation #rocketexperience #spacex #spaceflight #spacememe #usability #nutzerfreudlichkeit #rocketengine #cockpit #learnmore #consulting #coaching #beinnovative #paderborn #bielefeld #ostwestfalen #raketenstart

  •  19  0  5 August, 2020
  • Starhopper: Raptor Engine

Starship Development Series, Part 2

Continuing with series, let's learn a bit about the Raptor Engine.
In July 2019, the Starhopper made its initial flight test, a "hop" of approximately 20 m (66 ft) altitude, and a second and final "hop" in August, reaching an altitude of approximately 150 m (490 ft) and landing approximately 100 m (110 yds) from the launchpad, demonstrating the first use of the Raptor engine in real flight. With these small hops, the Raptor engine became the first full-flow staged combustion rocket engine ever flown.

The Raptor engine will be used in both the stages of the Starship. Raptor is a one-of-its-kind full-flow staged combustion engine using methane and oxygen as the propellants. While Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy are powered by Merlin engines, which are gas generator based open cycle engines, Starship had to go with the Raptor engine.

We will be discussing the working and reasons for the usage of this engine in the coming posts, in detail.

Please mention your questions in regards to Starhopper and Raptor engines in comments and we will cover it in our next posts.

To be continued …

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
~~
Check link in bio for 👇👇
📚 📚 📚 📚
Free ebook on Falcon 9.
🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
Playing cards on Rocket Science.
📧 📧 📧 📧
Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
>>>>>
And also our Telgram Channel.

#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Starhopper: Raptor Engine

    Starship Development Series, Part 2

    Continuing with series, let's learn a bit about the Raptor Engine.
    In July 2019, the Starhopper made its initial flight test, a "hop" of approximately 20 m (66 ft) altitude, and a second and final "hop" in August, reaching an altitude of approximately 150 m (490 ft) and landing approximately 100 m (110 yds) from the launchpad, demonstrating the first use of the Raptor engine in real flight. With these small hops, the Raptor engine became the first full-flow staged combustion rocket engine ever flown.

    The Raptor engine will be used in both the stages of the Starship. Raptor is a one-of-its-kind full-flow staged combustion engine using methane and oxygen as the propellants. While Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy are powered by Merlin engines, which are gas generator based open cycle engines, Starship had to go with the Raptor engine.

    We will be discussing the working and reasons for the usage of this engine in the coming posts, in detail.

    Please mention your questions in regards to Starhopper and Raptor engines in comments and we will cover it in our next posts.

    To be continued …

    Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
    Check link in bio for 👇👇
    📚 📚 📚 📚
    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
    🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
    Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
    ♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
    Playing cards on Rocket Science.
    📧 📧 📧 📧
    Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
    >>>>>
    And also our Telgram Channel.

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  3,555  42  5 August, 2020
  • 🇬🇧• Astra is a small satellite launch vehicle designed by Astra Space Inc. and capable of delivering about 100 kg to low earth orbit.
It is fueled by Kerosene and liquid oxygen (LOX). The first stage of Astra is powered by five Delphin engines of 28 kN thrust each driven by battery-powered pumps, the second stage uses an engine called Aether. It uses a minimum ground infrastructure, which can be set up in short term at different launch sites.
The first suborbital test flight occured on 21 July 2018 with failure shortly after launch.
The second suborbital flight in November 2018 also failed shortly after launch and fell near the launch pad, after all five engines failed.
The first orbital version, Rocket-3.0 is a two stage vehicle. Stage one apparently uses a common bulkhead design, contrary to the two prototypes. It has a diameter of 1.32 m and a height of 11.6 m.
~•~
🇮🇹•Astra è un vettore per piccoli satelliti progettato da Astra Space Inc. e in grado di portare circa 100 kg in orbita terrestre bassa.
È alimentato da cherosene e ossigeno liquido (LOX). Il primo stadio di Astra è costituito da cinque motori Delphin da 28 kN di spinta, ciascuno azionato da pompe a batteria, il secondo stadio utilizza un motore chiamato Aether. IL velivolo necessita di un'infrastruttura di terra minima, che può essere installata rapidamente in diversi siti di lancio.
Il primo volo di test suborbitale si è verificato il 21 luglio 2018 con fallimento poco dopo il lancio.
Anche il secondo volo suborbitale a novembre 2018 fallì poco dopo il lancio e cadde vicino alla piattaforma di lancio, dopo che tutti e cinque i motori fallirono.
La prima versione orbitale, Rocket-3.0 è un veicolo a due stadi. Il primo stadio sembrerebbe utilizzare un comune design a bulkhead, contrariamente ai due prototipi e ha un diametro di 1,32 m con un'altezza di 11,6 m.

Credits: space.skyrocket.de / John Kraus
  • 🇬🇧• Astra is a small satellite launch vehicle designed by Astra Space Inc. and capable of delivering about 100 kg to low earth orbit.
    It is fueled by Kerosene and liquid oxygen (LOX). The first stage of Astra is powered by five Delphin engines of 28 kN thrust each driven by battery-powered pumps, the second stage uses an engine called Aether. It uses a minimum ground infrastructure, which can be set up in short term at different launch sites.
    The first suborbital test flight occured on 21 July 2018 with failure shortly after launch.
    The second suborbital flight in November 2018 also failed shortly after launch and fell near the launch pad, after all five engines failed.
    The first orbital version, Rocket-3.0 is a two stage vehicle. Stage one apparently uses a common bulkhead design, contrary to the two prototypes. It has a diameter of 1.32 m and a height of 11.6 m.
    ~•~
    🇮🇹•Astra è un vettore per piccoli satelliti progettato da Astra Space Inc. e in grado di portare circa 100 kg in orbita terrestre bassa.
    È alimentato da cherosene e ossigeno liquido (LOX). Il primo stadio di Astra è costituito da cinque motori Delphin da 28 kN di spinta, ciascuno azionato da pompe a batteria, il secondo stadio utilizza un motore chiamato Aether. IL velivolo necessita di un'infrastruttura di terra minima, che può essere installata rapidamente in diversi siti di lancio.
    Il primo volo di test suborbitale si è verificato il 21 luglio 2018 con fallimento poco dopo il lancio.
    Anche il secondo volo suborbitale a novembre 2018 fallì poco dopo il lancio e cadde vicino alla piattaforma di lancio, dopo che tutti e cinque i motori fallirono.
    La prima versione orbitale, Rocket-3.0 è un veicolo a due stadi. Il primo stadio sembrerebbe utilizzare un comune design a bulkhead, contrariamente ai due prototipi e ha un diametro di 1,32 m con un'altezza di 11,6 m.

    Credits: space.skyrocket.de / John Kraus

  •  361  1  4 August, 2020
  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

Starship Development Series, Part 1

The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "

To be continued …

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
~~
Check link in bio for 👇👇
📚 📚 📚 📚
Free ebook on Falcon 9.
🚀 🚀 🚀 🚀
Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
Playing cards on Rocket Science.
📧 📧 📧 📧
Free Weekly Email newsletters on Rockets & Space.
>>>>>
And also our Telgram Channel.

#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #astronomy #BFR #starship #astrophysics #darkenergy #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #galaxies #physicslove #darkmatter #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

    Starship Development Series, Part 1

    The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

    The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

    Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "

    To be continued …

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  •  3,396  38  4 August, 2020
  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

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  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

    Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

    IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

    IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

    IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

    EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  64  0  3 August, 2020
  • 🇬🇧•How does the re-entry of the Crew Dragon capsule work? 
Spacecraft must first slowly exit the "keep-out sphere" before conducting more phasing burns to lower its orbit. As it gets closer to Earth, the Crew Dragon spacecraft will jettison its service module, known as its "trunk," before conducting a deorbit burn that will send it plummeting into Earth's atmosphere. 
The Crew Dragon spacecraft will enter Earth's atmosphere traveling at a speed of about 27,000 km/h. The friction of particles in the atmosphere will create a drag force, slowing it down drastically while heating the outside of the capsule, a heat shield protects the astronauts from these extreme temperatures.
Once Crew Dragon has completed the fiery reentry phase of its return flight, the spacecraft will deploy its four Mark 3 parachutes, which will slow down the vehicle as it descends for a gentle splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida. 
A search and recovery crew will be waiting nearby on SpaceX's GO Navigator ship.
~•~
🇮🇹•Come funziona il rientro della capsula Crew Dragon?
Il veicolo spaziale deve uscire lentamente dalla "sfera di esclusione" prima di condurre più manovre per abbassare l'orbita. Man mano che si avvicina alla Terra, la navicella spaziale sgancerà il suo modulo di servizio, prima di condurre una manovra di deorbit che la farà entrare nell'atmosfera terrestre.
La Crew Dragon entrerà nell'atmosfera terrestre viaggiando a una velocità di circa 27.000 km/h.  L'attrito delle particelle nell'atmosfera creerà una forza di resistenza, rallentandola drasticamente e riscaldando l'esterno della capsula, uno scudo termico protegge gli astronauti dalle temperature estreme.
Una volta completata questa fase, la navicella spaziale aprirà i suoi quattro paracadute Mark 3, che rallenteranno il veicolo fino all'ammaraggio nell'Oceano Atlantico al largo della costa della Florida.
Una squadra di ricerca e recupero attenderà nelle vicinanze sulla nave GO Navigator di SpaceX.

Credits: space.com / @spacex
  • 🇬🇧•How does the re-entry of the Crew Dragon capsule work?
    Spacecraft must first slowly exit the "keep-out sphere" before conducting more phasing burns to lower its orbit. As it gets closer to Earth, the Crew Dragon spacecraft will jettison its service module, known as its "trunk," before conducting a deorbit burn that will send it plummeting into Earth's atmosphere.
    The Crew Dragon spacecraft will enter Earth's atmosphere traveling at a speed of about 27,000 km/h. The friction of particles in the atmosphere will create a drag force, slowing it down drastically while heating the outside of the capsule, a heat shield protects the astronauts from these extreme temperatures.
    Once Crew Dragon has completed the fiery reentry phase of its return flight, the spacecraft will deploy its four Mark 3 parachutes, which will slow down the vehicle as it descends for a gentle splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida.
    A search and recovery crew will be waiting nearby on SpaceX's GO Navigator ship.
    ~•~
    🇮🇹•Come funziona il rientro della capsula Crew Dragon?
    Il veicolo spaziale deve uscire lentamente dalla "sfera di esclusione" prima di condurre più manovre per abbassare l'orbita. Man mano che si avvicina alla Terra, la navicella spaziale sgancerà il suo modulo di servizio, prima di condurre una manovra di deorbit che la farà entrare nell'atmosfera terrestre.
    La Crew Dragon entrerà nell'atmosfera terrestre viaggiando a una velocità di circa 27.000 km/h. L'attrito delle particelle nell'atmosfera creerà una forza di resistenza, rallentandola drasticamente e riscaldando l'esterno della capsula, uno scudo termico protegge gli astronauti dalle temperature estreme.
    Una volta completata questa fase, la navicella spaziale aprirà i suoi quattro paracadute Mark 3, che rallenteranno il veicolo fino all'ammaraggio nell'Oceano Atlantico al largo della costa della Florida.
    Una squadra di ricerca e recupero attenderà nelle vicinanze sulla nave GO Navigator di SpaceX.

    Credits: space.com / @spacex

  •  1,217  6  2 August, 2020
  • Earth is warmer when it is furthest from the Sun on its orbit and not when it is closest.

During the period when the Earth is furthest from the sun (aphelion), the average temperature of the entire planet is about 4°F (2.3°C) higher than when it is closest to the sun (perihelion). On average, the intensity of sunlight falling on Earth during aphelion is about 7% less than during perihelion. Despite this, the Earth ends up being warmer during the period in which it is furthest away from the sun.

Why is this so???

There is a lot more land in the Northern Hemisphere than the Southern Hemisphere; this land heats up much faster than water and water cools down much slower than land. So even though there is less intensity of sunlight during the summer in the Northern Hemisphere, the Earth’s average temperature is higher at this time when it’s furthest from the sun.

During the winter months, for the Northern Hemisphere, the overall temperature of the Southern Hemisphere, where it is summer, doesn’t change as much as the other way around. This is because a much larger portion of the Southern Hemisphere, compared to the Northern Hemisphere, is made up of water and water has a significantly greater heat capacity than land. On a similar vein then, during the summer for the Southern Hemisphere, the overall average temperature of the Southern Hemisphere doesn’t increase as much as the Northern Hemisphere does during its summer, for this same reason.

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  • Earth is warmer when it is furthest from the Sun on its orbit and not when it is closest.

    During the period when the Earth is furthest from the sun (aphelion), the average temperature of the entire planet is about 4°F (2.3°C) higher than when it is closest to the sun (perihelion). On average, the intensity of sunlight falling on Earth during aphelion is about 7% less than during perihelion. Despite this, the Earth ends up being warmer during the period in which it is furthest away from the sun.

    Why is this so???

    There is a lot more land in the Northern Hemisphere than the Southern Hemisphere; this land heats up much faster than water and water cools down much slower than land. So even though there is less intensity of sunlight during the summer in the Northern Hemisphere, the Earth’s average temperature is higher at this time when it’s furthest from the sun.

    During the winter months, for the Northern Hemisphere, the overall temperature of the Southern Hemisphere, where it is summer, doesn’t change as much as the other way around. This is because a much larger portion of the Southern Hemisphere, compared to the Northern Hemisphere, is made up of water and water has a significantly greater heat capacity than land. On a similar vein then, during the summer for the Southern Hemisphere, the overall average temperature of the Southern Hemisphere doesn’t increase as much as the Northern Hemisphere does during its summer, for this same reason.

    Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  •  754  10  2 August, 2020
  • The seasons result from the Earth's axis of rotation being tilted with respect to its orbital plane by an angle of approximately 23.4 degrees.

Regardless of the time of year, the northern and southern hemispheres always experience opposite seasons. This is because during summer or winter, one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun (see photo) than the other, and this exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit.

The seasons are NOT the result of the variation in Earth's distance to the Sun because of its elliptical orbit. In fact, Earth reaches perihelion (the point in its orbit closest to the Sun) in January, and it reaches aphelion (the point farthest from the Sun) in July, so the slight contribution of orbital eccentricity opposes the temperature trends of the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the effect of orbital eccentricity on Earth's seasons is a 7% variation in sunlight received.

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  • The seasons result from the Earth's axis of rotation being tilted with respect to its orbital plane by an angle of approximately 23.4 degrees.

    Regardless of the time of year, the northern and southern hemispheres always experience opposite seasons. This is because during summer or winter, one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun (see photo) than the other, and this exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit.

    The seasons are NOT the result of the variation in Earth's distance to the Sun because of its elliptical orbit. In fact, Earth reaches perihelion (the point in its orbit closest to the Sun) in January, and it reaches aphelion (the point farthest from the Sun) in July, so the slight contribution of orbital eccentricity opposes the temperature trends of the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the effect of orbital eccentricity on Earth's seasons is a 7% variation in sunlight received.

    Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
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  •  651  12  1 August, 2020
  • The best caption for this will be...? Let your creative imagination go crazy! Share your thoughts in comments!
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  • The best caption for this will be...? Let your creative imagination go crazy! Share your thoughts in comments!
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    Check link in bio for 👇👇
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  •  1,113  22  31 July, 2020
  • Which is the fastest spacecraft?

In order to unambiguously express the speed of a spacecraft, a frame of reference must be specified. Typically, this frame is fixed to the body with the greatest gravitational influence on the spacecraft, as this is the most relevant frame for most purposes. Velocities in different frames of reference are not directly comparable; thus the matter of the "fastest spacecraft" depends on the reference frame used.

Because of the influence of gravity, maximum velocities are usually attained when a spacecraft is close to its primary body, either just after launch, during the early stages of atmospheric entry, or at a point of closest approach (periapsis).

A related question was asked (Escape velocity of fastest rocket), by @shadabahmed.18 ,while escape velocity is not dependent on a rocket, so we thought to answer the question on which is the fastest spacecraft. We hope it helps.

Was this informative? Did you learn anything new? Let us know in comments.
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  • Which is the fastest spacecraft?

    In order to unambiguously express the speed of a spacecraft, a frame of reference must be specified. Typically, this frame is fixed to the body with the greatest gravitational influence on the spacecraft, as this is the most relevant frame for most purposes. Velocities in different frames of reference are not directly comparable; thus the matter of the "fastest spacecraft" depends on the reference frame used.

    Because of the influence of gravity, maximum velocities are usually attained when a spacecraft is close to its primary body, either just after launch, during the early stages of atmospheric entry, or at a point of closest approach (periapsis).

    A related question was asked (Escape velocity of fastest rocket), by @shadabahmed.18 ,while escape velocity is not dependent on a rocket, so we thought to answer the question on which is the fastest spacecraft. We hope it helps.

    Was this informative? Did you learn anything new? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
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  •  772  5  30 July, 2020
  • The graph below shows the flight chart of the flight of our SRX75 supersonic test model rocktet. Most of the parts are 3D-printed. The flight altitude was only 416 ft.
.
Our goal was to test the avionics, the board computer and the recovery system. Unfortunately the parachute did not open and only 5 of 9 propulsion drives worked correctly. So there is much potential for optimization and improvements. Nevertheless we reached our goal to testing all the systems well.
.
Hope you like the post. Leave your comments in bio 👇
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Fallow @sonntag_aerospace_systems ✅ for daily information about our space projects and knowledge pieces of space engineering.
□
#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spaceflight #spacecraft  #spacerocketlaunch #falcon9 #falconheavy #spacexlaunch #falcon9launch #falcon9landing  #rocket #rocketry #rocketscience #astronomie #starship #astrophysics #spaceengineering #modellraketen #raketen #rocketslove
  • The graph below shows the flight chart of the flight of our SRX75 supersonic test model rocktet. Most of the parts are 3D-printed. The flight altitude was only 416 ft.
    .
    Our goal was to test the avionics, the board computer and the recovery system. Unfortunately the parachute did not open and only 5 of 9 propulsion drives worked correctly. So there is much potential for optimization and improvements. Nevertheless we reached our goal to testing all the systems well.
    .
    Hope you like the post. Leave your comments in bio 👇
    .
    Fallow @sonntag_aerospace_systems ✅ for daily information about our space projects and knowledge pieces of space engineering.

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacerocketlaunch #falcon9 #falconheavy #spacexlaunch #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #rocket #rocketry #rocketscience #astronomie #starship #astrophysics #spaceengineering #modellraketen #raketen #rocketslove

  •  2  0  30 July, 2020
  • ➡ Swipe to see more ➡
The video below shows the first launch of our SRX75 supersonic test model rocktet in slow motion. Most of the parts are 3D-printed. The flight altitude was only 416 ft.
.
Our goal was to test the avionics, the board computer and the recovery system. Unfortunately the parachute did not open and only 5 of 9 propulsion drives worked correctly. So there is much potential for optimization and improvements. Nevertheless we reached our goal to testing all the systems well.
.
Hope you like the video. Leave your comments in bio 👇
.
Fallow @sonntag_aerospace_systems ✅ for daily information about our space projects and knowledge pieces of space engineering.
□
#space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spaceflight #spacecraft  #spacerocketlaunch #falcon9 #falconheavy #spacexlaunch #falcon9launch #falcon9landing  #rocket #rocketry #rocketscience #astronomie #starship #astrophysics #spaceengineering #modellraketen #raketen #rocketslove
  • ➡ Swipe to see more ➡
    The video below shows the first launch of our SRX75 supersonic test model rocktet in slow motion. Most of the parts are 3D-printed. The flight altitude was only 416 ft.
    .
    Our goal was to test the avionics, the board computer and the recovery system. Unfortunately the parachute did not open and only 5 of 9 propulsion drives worked correctly. So there is much potential for optimization and improvements. Nevertheless we reached our goal to testing all the systems well.
    .
    Hope you like the video. Leave your comments in bio 👇
    .
    Fallow @sonntag_aerospace_systems ✅ for daily information about our space projects and knowledge pieces of space engineering.

    #space #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacerocketlaunch #falcon9 #falconheavy #spacexlaunch #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #rocket #rocketry #rocketscience #astronomie #starship #astrophysics #spaceengineering #modellraketen #raketen #rocketslove

  •  4  0  30 July, 2020
  • 🇬🇧•Tianwen-1 is an interplanetary mission to Mars by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to send a robotic spacecraft, which consists of an orbiter, a lander and a rover.
The mission was successfully launched from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on 23 July 2020 with a Long March 5 heavy-lift rocket, and is currently en route to Mars.
The aims of the mission may include the following: find evidence for current and past life, produce Martian surface maps, characterize Martian soil composition and water ice distribution, examine the Martian atmosphere, and in particular, its ionosphere, among others.
The current Mars mission also would serve as a demonstration of technology that will be needed for an anticipated Chinese Mars sample-return mission proposed for the 2030s.
~•~
🇮🇹•Tianwen-1 è una missione interplanetaria su Marte da parte della China National Space Administration (CNSA) per inviare un veicolo spaziale robotizzato, che consiste di un orbiter, un lander e un rover.
La missione è stata lanciata con successo da Wenchang il 23 luglio 2020 a bordo di un Long March 5 ed è attualmente in rotta verso Marte.
Gli obiettivi della missione possono comprendere i seguenti: trovare prove della vita attuale e passata, produrre mappe di superficie marziane, caratterizzare la composizione del suolo marziano e la distribuzione del ghiaccio d'acqua, esaminare l'atmosfera marziana e, in particolare, la sua ionosfera.
L'attuale missione su Marte servirebbe anche come dimostrazione della tecnologia che sarà necessaria per un'attesa missione per il ritorno di campioni proposta per gli anni 2030.

Credits: @cnsa_china
  • 🇬🇧•Tianwen-1 is an interplanetary mission to Mars by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to send a robotic spacecraft, which consists of an orbiter, a lander and a rover.
    The mission was successfully launched from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on 23 July 2020 with a Long March 5 heavy-lift rocket, and is currently en route to Mars.
    The aims of the mission may include the following: find evidence for current and past life, produce Martian surface maps, characterize Martian soil composition and water ice distribution, examine the Martian atmosphere, and in particular, its ionosphere, among others.
    The current Mars mission also would serve as a demonstration of technology that will be needed for an anticipated Chinese Mars sample-return mission proposed for the 2030s.
    ~•~
    🇮🇹•Tianwen-1 è una missione interplanetaria su Marte da parte della China National Space Administration (CNSA) per inviare un veicolo spaziale robotizzato, che consiste di un orbiter, un lander e un rover.
    La missione è stata lanciata con successo da Wenchang il 23 luglio 2020 a bordo di un Long March 5 ed è attualmente in rotta verso Marte.
    Gli obiettivi della missione possono comprendere i seguenti: trovare prove della vita attuale e passata, produrre mappe di superficie marziane, caratterizzare la composizione del suolo marziano e la distribuzione del ghiaccio d'acqua, esaminare l'atmosfera marziana e, in particolare, la sua ionosfera.
    L'attuale missione su Marte servirebbe anche come dimostrazione della tecnologia che sarà necessaria per un'attesa missione per il ritorno di campioni proposta per gli anni 2030.

    Credits: @cnsa_china

  •  467  9  29 July, 2020
  • How Hubble Space Telescope works? This question was asked by @thegreatvigneshphysicist

Hubble is a Cassegrain reflector telescope. Light from celestial objects travels down a tube, is collected by a bowl-like, inwardly curved primary mirror and reflected toward a smaller, dome-shaped, outwardly curved secondary mirror. The secondary mirror bounces the light back to the primary mirror and through a hole in its center. The light is focused on a small area called the focal plane, where it is picked up by its various science instruments. (Photo).

Hubble’s science instruments, the astronomer’s eyes to the universe, work together or individually to provide the observations. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way. Hubble holds two main varieties of instruments: cameras, which capture Hubble's famed images, and spectrographs, which break light into colors for analysis.
Hubble's current suite of instruments includes:

  Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)
 Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)
 Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)
 Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and
  Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS).

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  • How Hubble Space Telescope works? This question was asked by @thegreatvigneshphysicist

    Hubble is a Cassegrain reflector telescope. Light from celestial objects travels down a tube, is collected by a bowl-like, inwardly curved primary mirror and reflected toward a smaller, dome-shaped, outwardly curved secondary mirror. The secondary mirror bounces the light back to the primary mirror and through a hole in its center. The light is focused on a small area called the focal plane, where it is picked up by its various science instruments. (Photo).

    Hubble’s science instruments, the astronomer’s eyes to the universe, work together or individually to provide the observations. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way. Hubble holds two main varieties of instruments: cameras, which capture Hubble's famed images, and spectrographs, which break light into colors for analysis.
    Hubble's current suite of instruments includes:

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)
    Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS)
    Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)
    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and
    Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS).

    Was this informative? Did you learn anything new? Let us know in comments.
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  •  1,452  5  29 July, 2020
  • What is Dark Energy and Dark Matter? This question was asked by @darcy.ch_07.

Dark energy-

The Universe is expanding, and the expansion is getting quicker. Dark energy is a "name" given to a form of energy which is "thought" to be responsible for the reason why the "rate" of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe is increasing.

Dark matter is a form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe.

Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects that cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen.

Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it doesn't absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation, and is therefore difficult to detect.

Quite simply - there are things being "observed" in the Universe that humans are unable to explain using the existing theories and physics. So for "time-being", it has been given the name Dark Matter/Energy. Quite similar to what Wilhelm Röntgen gave the name "X-rays", as "X" is commonly used to name the missing/unknown variable in the discussion.

Let us know your thoughts in comments. 

Photo: A 3D map offers a first look at the web-like large-scale distribution of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the Universe's imaginary mass. The distribution of mass in the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS survey, determined from measurements of weak gravitational lensing.

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  • What is Dark Energy and Dark Matter? This question was asked by @darcy.ch_07.

    Dark energy-

    The Universe is expanding, and the expansion is getting quicker. Dark energy is a "name" given to a form of energy which is "thought" to be responsible for the reason why the "rate" of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe is increasing.

    Dark matter is a form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe.

    Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects that cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen.

    Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it doesn't absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation, and is therefore difficult to detect.

    Quite simply - there are things being "observed" in the Universe that humans are unable to explain using the existing theories and physics. So for "time-being", it has been given the name Dark Matter/Energy. Quite similar to what Wilhelm Röntgen gave the name "X-rays", as "X" is commonly used to name the missing/unknown variable in the discussion.

    Let us know your thoughts in comments.

    Photo: A 3D map offers a first look at the web-like large-scale distribution of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the Universe's imaginary mass. The distribution of mass in the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS survey, determined from measurements of weak gravitational lensing.

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  •  578  5  28 July, 2020
  • The poor ballpoint pen - go through the entire slideshow to uncover the myth which many of you are having in minds.

Let us know your thoughts in comments. 

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  • The poor ballpoint pen - go through the entire slideshow to uncover the myth which many of you are having in minds.

    Let us know your thoughts in comments.

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  •  872  19  27 July, 2020
  • Slideshow: Answer to the question asked yesterday in stories. 

Let us know your thoughts in comments. 

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  • Slideshow: Answer to the question asked yesterday in stories.

    Let us know your thoughts in comments.

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  •  571  5  26 July, 2020
  • Yesterday we understood the the gimbal mechanism and how it helps rocket change its direction. 

Now let’s try to understand gimballed thrust in case of Falcon 9 rocket. All Merlin 1-D engines are equipped with a gimbal joint. 

The encircled label (in blue) is Thrust Vectoring Control Actuator (TVC Actuator). This is the part that will swivel the assembly to a certain degree to obtain desired offset thrust vector also called as gimbal. Out of the 9 nozzles the center nozzle of the Falcon 9 has a wider gimbal range. Any guesses why?
 
Please check this video link (check our story and swipe up) showing the Gimbal in action (in a test setup). That is is not of Falcon 9, the actual motion is quite similar.

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  • Yesterday we understood the the gimbal mechanism and how it helps rocket change its direction.

    Now let’s try to understand gimballed thrust in case of Falcon 9 rocket. All Merlin 1-D engines are equipped with a gimbal joint.

    The encircled label (in blue) is Thrust Vectoring Control Actuator (TVC Actuator). This is the part that will swivel the assembly to a certain degree to obtain desired offset thrust vector also called as gimbal. Out of the 9 nozzles the center nozzle of the Falcon 9 has a wider gimbal range. Any guesses why?

    Please check this video link (check our story and swipe up) showing the Gimbal in action (in a test setup). That is is not of Falcon 9, the actual motion is quite similar.

    ~~
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  •  1,762  12  25 July, 2020
  • How rocket steers? 

In spacecraft propulsion, rocket engines (as in Saturn V and Falcon 9) makes use of gimbaled thrust for navigation. In such a system, the exhaust nozzle of the rocket can be swiveled from side to side. This results in change of thrust direction relative to the center of gravity of the rocket.

The above figures show gimballed thrust for three different gimbaled angles.
 
Case 1: The middle rocket shows the straight-line flight configuration, in which the direction of thrust is along the center line of the rocket and through the center of gravity of the rocket.

Case 2: On the rocket at the left, the nozzle has been deflected to the left and the thrust line is now inclined to the rocket center line at an angle called the gimbal angle. Since the thrust no longer passes through the center of gravity, a torque is generated about the center of gravity and the nose of the rocket turns to the left.

Case 3: On the rocket at the right, the nozzle has been deflected to the right and the nose is moved to the left. As like the above case a torque is generated which make the rocket’s nose to turn right.

Question: What is the name of the component that does this work (of turning the nozzle) in a rocket? Let us know in comments.

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  • How rocket steers?

    In spacecraft propulsion, rocket engines (as in Saturn V and Falcon 9) makes use of gimbaled thrust for navigation. In such a system, the exhaust nozzle of the rocket can be swiveled from side to side. This results in change of thrust direction relative to the center of gravity of the rocket.

    The above figures show gimballed thrust for three different gimbaled angles.

    Case 1: The middle rocket shows the straight-line flight configuration, in which the direction of thrust is along the center line of the rocket and through the center of gravity of the rocket.

    Case 2: On the rocket at the left, the nozzle has been deflected to the left and the thrust line is now inclined to the rocket center line at an angle called the gimbal angle. Since the thrust no longer passes through the center of gravity, a torque is generated about the center of gravity and the nose of the rocket turns to the left.

    Case 3: On the rocket at the right, the nozzle has been deflected to the right and the nose is moved to the left. As like the above case a torque is generated which make the rocket’s nose to turn right.

    Question: What is the name of the component that does this work (of turning the nozzle) in a rocket? Let us know in comments.

    ~~
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  •  2,276  29  24 July, 2020
  • A monopropellant rocket is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant. The most commonly used monopropellant is hydrazine, a chemical which is a strong reducing agent. The most common catalyst is granular alumina coated with iridium.

Most chemical-reaction monopropellant rocket systems consist of a fuel tank, usually a titanium or aluminium sphere, with an ethylene-propylene rubber container or a surface tension propellant management device filled with the fuel. The tank is then pressurized with helium or nitrogen, which pushes the fuel out to the motors. 

The rocket is fired when the computer sends direct current through a small electromagnet that opens the poppet valve. The firing is often very brief, a few milliseconds, and — if operated in air — would sound like a pebble thrown against a metal trash can; if on for long, it would make a piercing hiss.

Chemical-reaction monopropellants are not as efficient as some other propulsion technologies. Engineers choose them  when the need for simplicity and reliability outweigh the need for high delivered impulse. If the propulsion system must produce large amounts of thrust, or have a high specific impulse, as on the main motor of an interplanetary spacecraft, other technologies are used. 

By the way, how is the image related to this post? Let us know in comments.
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  • A monopropellant rocket is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant. The most commonly used monopropellant is hydrazine, a chemical which is a strong reducing agent. The most common catalyst is granular alumina coated with iridium.

    Most chemical-reaction monopropellant rocket systems consist of a fuel tank, usually a titanium or aluminium sphere, with an ethylene-propylene rubber container or a surface tension propellant management device filled with the fuel. The tank is then pressurized with helium or nitrogen, which pushes the fuel out to the motors.

    The rocket is fired when the computer sends direct current through a small electromagnet that opens the poppet valve. The firing is often very brief, a few milliseconds, and — if operated in air — would sound like a pebble thrown against a metal trash can; if on for long, it would make a piercing hiss.

    Chemical-reaction monopropellants are not as efficient as some other propulsion technologies. Engineers choose them when the need for simplicity and reliability outweigh the need for high delivered impulse. If the propulsion system must produce large amounts of thrust, or have a high specific impulse, as on the main motor of an interplanetary spacecraft, other technologies are used.

    By the way, how is the image related to this post? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
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  •  1,443  15  23 July, 2020

Top #rocketslove Posts

  • Raptor Engine continued …

2 days back we covered the Layman's explanation of "What is full-flow staged combustion cycle" of Raptor Engine. Let's build on it further. 

The two pre-burners of Raptor Engine operate at non-optimum fuel to oxygen ratio. One being fuel-rich and other being oxygen-rich, powering the respective pumps. Fuel being used is Methane.

Q: Why Methane?

A: For the fuel-rich pre-burner, RP-1 can't be used as the exhaust (which has to go through the combustion chamber is not clean, with a significant presence of unburnt carbon. The other alternative Hydrogen requires higher volume tanks due to much lesser density and high molar ratios needed for combining with one unit of Oxygen. Methane gives cleaner exhaust and is closer to RP1 in density and fuel-oxygen ratios. Further in many other parameters, Methane performs in between RP1 and Hydrogen.

The other thought of the possibility of Methane being easy to manufacture on Mars by Sabatier process (used in ISS), while true, is not necessarily the cited reason.

Q: Is it best?

A: See, whatever SpaceX does (and will do), people will find a reason to say that their engine is the best & nothing could be better. When Merlin came out, a ton of articles was highlighting the best features (Thrust to weight) of that and now the same happens for Raptor (high thrust).

The thing to keep in mind is - for their specific requirement of a reliable, low cost, cheaper fuel, availability, they have "found" raptor to be "best suited" for. That doesn't make it "THE BEST". For example, when Merlin came out, many of you might not have even heard of chamber pressure thing. And now for Raptor, the highest chamber pressure is praised everywhere. (Merlin has got one of the lowest value for that)

Q: What is chamber pressure?

A: Consider it as the average pressure before the throat. Where it is exactly measured - at the tip of the injector or before combustion or after combustion - varies from firm to firm. F-1 measured at injector end. The important thing is higher the value, higher the thrust with potential to decrease engine size.

Send us your questions. We will continue on with Starship Development series.
  • Raptor Engine continued …

    2 days back we covered the Layman's explanation of "What is full-flow staged combustion cycle" of Raptor Engine. Let's build on it further.

    The two pre-burners of Raptor Engine operate at non-optimum fuel to oxygen ratio. One being fuel-rich and other being oxygen-rich, powering the respective pumps. Fuel being used is Methane.

    Q: Why Methane?

    A: For the fuel-rich pre-burner, RP-1 can't be used as the exhaust (which has to go through the combustion chamber is not clean, with a significant presence of unburnt carbon. The other alternative Hydrogen requires higher volume tanks due to much lesser density and high molar ratios needed for combining with one unit of Oxygen. Methane gives cleaner exhaust and is closer to RP1 in density and fuel-oxygen ratios. Further in many other parameters, Methane performs in between RP1 and Hydrogen.

    The other thought of the possibility of Methane being easy to manufacture on Mars by Sabatier process (used in ISS), while true, is not necessarily the cited reason.

    Q: Is it best?

    A: See, whatever SpaceX does (and will do), people will find a reason to say that their engine is the best & nothing could be better. When Merlin came out, a ton of articles was highlighting the best features (Thrust to weight) of that and now the same happens for Raptor (high thrust).

    The thing to keep in mind is - for their specific requirement of a reliable, low cost, cheaper fuel, availability, they have "found" raptor to be "best suited" for. That doesn't make it "THE BEST". For example, when Merlin came out, many of you might not have even heard of chamber pressure thing. And now for Raptor, the highest chamber pressure is praised everywhere. (Merlin has got one of the lowest value for that)

    Q: What is chamber pressure?

    A: Consider it as the average pressure before the throat. Where it is exactly measured - at the tip of the injector or before combustion or after combustion - varies from firm to firm. F-1 measured at injector end. The important thing is higher the value, higher the thrust with potential to decrease engine size.

    Send us your questions. We will continue on with Starship Development series.

  •  1,275  12  8 hours ago
  • Starhopper: Raptor Engine

Starship Development Series, Part 2

Continuing with series, let's learn a bit about the Raptor Engine.
In July 2019, the Starhopper made its initial flight test, a "hop" of approximately 20 m (66 ft) altitude, and a second and final "hop" in August, reaching an altitude of approximately 150 m (490 ft) and landing approximately 100 m (110 yds) from the launchpad, demonstrating the first use of the Raptor engine in real flight. With these small hops, the Raptor engine became the first full-flow staged combustion rocket engine ever flown.

The Raptor engine will be used in both the stages of the Starship. Raptor is a one-of-its-kind full-flow staged combustion engine using methane and oxygen as the propellants. While Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy are powered by Merlin engines, which are gas generator based open cycle engines, Starship had to go with the Raptor engine.

We will be discussing the working and reasons for the usage of this engine in the coming posts, in detail.

Please mention your questions in regards to Starhopper and Raptor engines in comments and we will cover it in our next posts.

To be continued …

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  • Starhopper: Raptor Engine

    Starship Development Series, Part 2

    Continuing with series, let's learn a bit about the Raptor Engine.
    In July 2019, the Starhopper made its initial flight test, a "hop" of approximately 20 m (66 ft) altitude, and a second and final "hop" in August, reaching an altitude of approximately 150 m (490 ft) and landing approximately 100 m (110 yds) from the launchpad, demonstrating the first use of the Raptor engine in real flight. With these small hops, the Raptor engine became the first full-flow staged combustion rocket engine ever flown.

    The Raptor engine will be used in both the stages of the Starship. Raptor is a one-of-its-kind full-flow staged combustion engine using methane and oxygen as the propellants. While Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy are powered by Merlin engines, which are gas generator based open cycle engines, Starship had to go with the Raptor engine.

    We will be discussing the working and reasons for the usage of this engine in the coming posts, in detail.

    Please mention your questions in regards to Starhopper and Raptor engines in comments and we will cover it in our next posts.

    To be continued …

    Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  •  3,555  42  5 August, 2020
  • Let us learn Raptor Engine's Full-flow staged combustion, from basics.

First: Staged Combustion (Closed Cycle)

You have got two propellants. Fuel & Oxygen. In their independent cylinders. They both have to meet in combustion chamber to ignite and produce a massive amount of thrust. So we connect high-pressure pumps which pump the propellants out to meet down the line in the combustion chamber. Now the pumps also need energy to run. So, we bring an intermediate "stage". The pumps, pump the propellant to pre-burner — a mini-engine. Here a mini-combustion happens which then runs a turbine and this turbine powers the pumps and makes everything above go in a cycle.

Let's build on this further.

In the combustion chamber, the ratio of propellants is kept optimum. To utilize the right amount of oxygen to burn the complete fuel. This optimisation if done in the mini-engine will lead to a very high temperature, which would pose a difficulty for the turbine and min-engine. So what we do is, force a non-optimum propellant ratio go through the pre-burner. Send all of the one propellant and a tiny amount of other. So the pre-burner is either Fuel rich or Oxygen rich.

After the pre-burner runs the turbine, the entire exhaust is forced to go through the combustion chamber, so that whatever "extra" propellant it was having, undergoes combustion. This is called Propellant-rich staged combustion. The propellant can be fuel/oxygen.

Let's build further.

Until now we are having one preburner (mini-engine) pumping both propellants. In some cases, the amount of fuel & propellant needed to be pumped can be quite similar and for some it can be very different. For the later case, each will need its own pre-burner. So, now there can be two engine types. One having the same propellant rich pre-burner for both the pumps or having fuel-rich pre-burner for fuel pump and oxygen rich pre-burner for oxygen pump. The first case is called "Propellant-rich dual shaft/burner staged combustion" and the second case is called "Full flow staged combustion".

I hope the above was clear. Feel free to ask questions. Pros & cons of each type will be in next post.
  • Let us learn Raptor Engine's Full-flow staged combustion, from basics.

    First: Staged Combustion (Closed Cycle)

    You have got two propellants. Fuel & Oxygen. In their independent cylinders. They both have to meet in combustion chamber to ignite and produce a massive amount of thrust. So we connect high-pressure pumps which pump the propellants out to meet down the line in the combustion chamber. Now the pumps also need energy to run. So, we bring an intermediate "stage". The pumps, pump the propellant to pre-burner — a mini-engine. Here a mini-combustion happens which then runs a turbine and this turbine powers the pumps and makes everything above go in a cycle.

    Let's build on this further.

    In the combustion chamber, the ratio of propellants is kept optimum. To utilize the right amount of oxygen to burn the complete fuel. This optimisation if done in the mini-engine will lead to a very high temperature, which would pose a difficulty for the turbine and min-engine. So what we do is, force a non-optimum propellant ratio go through the pre-burner. Send all of the one propellant and a tiny amount of other. So the pre-burner is either Fuel rich or Oxygen rich.

    After the pre-burner runs the turbine, the entire exhaust is forced to go through the combustion chamber, so that whatever "extra" propellant it was having, undergoes combustion. This is called Propellant-rich staged combustion. The propellant can be fuel/oxygen.

    Let's build further.

    Until now we are having one preburner (mini-engine) pumping both propellants. In some cases, the amount of fuel & propellant needed to be pumped can be quite similar and for some it can be very different. For the later case, each will need its own pre-burner. So, now there can be two engine types. One having the same propellant rich pre-burner for both the pumps or having fuel-rich pre-burner for fuel pump and oxygen rich pre-burner for oxygen pump. The first case is called "Propellant-rich dual shaft/burner staged combustion" and the second case is called "Full flow staged combustion".

    I hope the above was clear. Feel free to ask questions. Pros & cons of each type will be in next post.

  •  1,916  39  6 August, 2020
  • Yesterday, we covered the meaning and working of full-flow staged combustion engine cycle which the Raptor engine has got.

We invite you to ask any question related to this - Raptor Engine, Staged combustion, Combustion cycles, Starhopper. Put it in comments. We will answer it.
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  • Yesterday, we covered the meaning and working of full-flow staged combustion engine cycle which the Raptor engine has got.

    We invite you to ask any question related to this - Raptor Engine, Staged combustion, Combustion cycles, Starhopper. Put it in comments. We will answer it.
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  •  1,012  145  7 August, 2020
  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

Starship Development Series, Part 1

The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "

To be continued …

Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
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  • Starhopper: A small hop towards a big dream.

    Starship Development Series, Part 1

    The integrated system testing of a proof of concept for Starship began in March 2019, with the addition of a single Raptor rocket engine to a reduced-height prototype, nicknamed Starhopper—similar to Grasshopper, an equivalent prototype of the Falcon 9 reusable booster. Starhopper was used from April through August 2019 for static testing and low-altitude, low-velocity flight testing of vertical launches and landings.

    The usage of Stainless steel material instead of carbon fiber composites is one of the many counter-intuitive design steps taken in the entire Startship program.

    Stainless steel has two main crystalline structures - martensitic (400 series) & austenitic (300 series). From the point of cryogenic applications, the 300 series offers much better strength and tougness than the other available options. In Elon's words, "Most steels, as you get to cryogenic temperatures, become very brittle. That’s true of most steels, but not of stainless steel that has a high chrome-nickel content. That actually increases in strength, and ductility is still very high. So you have, like, 12% to 18% ductility at, say, 72 degrees Kelvin (-330 degrees Fahrenheit). Very ductile, very tough. No fracture issues. "

    To be continued …

    Was it informative? Any questions? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
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  •  3,396  38  4 August, 2020
  • Beautiful work done by a reddit user eliseimaslov. (If any one knows his/her Instagram, please let us know). 

We answered most of the questions asked in previous post on Raptor engine. Some great discussions were led by @astro_pratham_.jd, @umang_sudani, @popilrumeno, @swp_propulsion_systems. Great work guys.

From tomorrow we will continue on this series on Starship Development. Feel free to suggest topics and posts to cover.

Happy learning. :-) 
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  • Beautiful work done by a reddit user eliseimaslov. (If any one knows his/her Instagram, please let us know).

    We answered most of the questions asked in previous post on Raptor engine. Some great discussions were led by @astro_pratham_.jd, @umang_sudani, @popilrumeno, @swp_propulsion_systems. Great work guys.

    From tomorrow we will continue on this series on Starship Development. Feel free to suggest topics and posts to cover.

    Happy learning. :-)
    .
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  •  2,653  38  8 August, 2020
  • Beautiful sight overnight, as SpaceX launched Dragon CRS-17 to resupply the ISS for NASA, followed by another successful Falcon landing. And with us now well into Spring, the Milky Way's galactic core has returned to the north! Two-image composite / 1 for MW / 2nd for launch & landing

Credits: mike photography .
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#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine  #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #physicslover #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Beautiful sight overnight, as SpaceX launched Dragon CRS-17 to resupply the ISS for NASA, followed by another successful Falcon landing. And with us now well into Spring, the Milky Way's galactic core has returned to the north! Two-image composite / 1 for MW / 2nd for launch & landing

    Credits: mike photography .
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    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #physicslover #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  455  9  28 November, 2019
  • .
A simple concept. Play of two important "centers" in the rocket. 1. Center of pressure and 2. Center of Gravity. If the center of pressure is above the center of gravity, the resulting drag forces end up providing a clockwise torque which further increases the displacement angle and "deteriorates" the condition further.

This is the reason why the center of pressure should "always" be lower than the center of gravity, as then, the resulting torque will bring the rocket back to the neutral position.

How the "Center of pressure" is calculated? Well, that will be discussed tomorrow. You may turn the post notification on by clicking the three dots above this post, in top right corner.

Check the link in bio - for FREE ebook on Overview of Falcon 9.
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  • .
    A simple concept. Play of two important "centers" in the rocket. 1. Center of pressure and 2. Center of Gravity. If the center of pressure is above the center of gravity, the resulting drag forces end up providing a clockwise torque which further increases the displacement angle and "deteriorates" the condition further.

    This is the reason why the center of pressure should "always" be lower than the center of gravity, as then, the resulting torque will bring the rocket back to the neutral position.

    How the "Center of pressure" is calculated? Well, that will be discussed tomorrow. You may turn the post notification on by clicking the three dots above this post, in top right corner.

    Check the link in bio - for FREE ebook on Overview of Falcon 9.
    .
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    .📚If your interested in my page .. Follow my accounts.
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    For Mechanical ::@insta_mechanical
    For Mechanical ::@insta_mechanical
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  •  8,104  46  28 May, 2020