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  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

    Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

    IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

    IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

    IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

    EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  67  0  3 August, 2020
  • The poor ballpoint pen - go through the entire slideshow to uncover the myth which many of you are having in minds.

Let us know your thoughts in comments. 

~~
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  • The poor ballpoint pen - go through the entire slideshow to uncover the myth which many of you are having in minds.

    Let us know your thoughts in comments.

    ~~
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  •  876  19  27 July, 2020
  • Slideshow: Answer to the question asked yesterday in stories. 

Let us know your thoughts in comments. 

~~
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  • Slideshow: Answer to the question asked yesterday in stories.

    Let us know your thoughts in comments.

    ~~
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    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  572  5  26 July, 2020
  • Yesterday we understood the the gimbal mechanism and how it helps rocket change its direction. 

Now let’s try to understand gimballed thrust in case of Falcon 9 rocket. All Merlin 1-D engines are equipped with a gimbal joint. 

The encircled label (in blue) is Thrust Vectoring Control Actuator (TVC Actuator). This is the part that will swivel the assembly to a certain degree to obtain desired offset thrust vector also called as gimbal. Out of the 9 nozzles the center nozzle of the Falcon 9 has a wider gimbal range. Any guesses why?
 
Please check this video link (check our story and swipe up) showing the Gimbal in action (in a test setup). That is is not of Falcon 9, the actual motion is quite similar.

~~
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#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Yesterday we understood the the gimbal mechanism and how it helps rocket change its direction.

    Now let’s try to understand gimballed thrust in case of Falcon 9 rocket. All Merlin 1-D engines are equipped with a gimbal joint.

    The encircled label (in blue) is Thrust Vectoring Control Actuator (TVC Actuator). This is the part that will swivel the assembly to a certain degree to obtain desired offset thrust vector also called as gimbal. Out of the 9 nozzles the center nozzle of the Falcon 9 has a wider gimbal range. Any guesses why?

    Please check this video link (check our story and swipe up) showing the Gimbal in action (in a test setup). That is is not of Falcon 9, the actual motion is quite similar.

    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
    πŸ“š πŸ“š πŸ“š πŸ“š
    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
    πŸš€ πŸš€ πŸš€ πŸš€
    Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
    ♠️ ♦️ ♠️ ♦️
    Playing cards on Rocket Science.
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    And also our Telgram Channel.

    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  1,768  12  25 July, 2020
  • How rocket steers? 

In spacecraft propulsion, rocket engines (as in Saturn V and Falcon 9) makes use of gimbaled thrust for navigation. In such a system, the exhaust nozzle of the rocket can be swiveled from side to side. This results in change of thrust direction relative to the center of gravity of the rocket.

The above figures show gimballed thrust for three different gimbaled angles.
 
Case 1: The middle rocket shows the straight-line flight configuration, in which the direction of thrust is along the center line of the rocket and through the center of gravity of the rocket.

Case 2: On the rocket at the left, the nozzle has been deflected to the left and the thrust line is now inclined to the rocket center line at an angle called the gimbal angle. Since the thrust no longer passes through the center of gravity, a torque is generated about the center of gravity and the nose of the rocket turns to the left.

Case 3: On the rocket at the right, the nozzle has been deflected to the right and the nose is moved to the left. As like the above case a torque is generated which make the rocket’s nose to turn right.

Question: What is the name of the component that does this work (of turning the nozzle) in a rocket? Let us know in comments.

~~
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  • How rocket steers?

    In spacecraft propulsion, rocket engines (as in Saturn V and Falcon 9) makes use of gimbaled thrust for navigation. In such a system, the exhaust nozzle of the rocket can be swiveled from side to side. This results in change of thrust direction relative to the center of gravity of the rocket.

    The above figures show gimballed thrust for three different gimbaled angles.

    Case 1: The middle rocket shows the straight-line flight configuration, in which the direction of thrust is along the center line of the rocket and through the center of gravity of the rocket.

    Case 2: On the rocket at the left, the nozzle has been deflected to the left and the thrust line is now inclined to the rocket center line at an angle called the gimbal angle. Since the thrust no longer passes through the center of gravity, a torque is generated about the center of gravity and the nose of the rocket turns to the left.

    Case 3: On the rocket at the right, the nozzle has been deflected to the right and the nose is moved to the left. As like the above case a torque is generated which make the rocket’s nose to turn right.

    Question: What is the name of the component that does this work (of turning the nozzle) in a rocket? Let us know in comments.

    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
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    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  2,277  29  24 July, 2020
  • A monopropellant rocket is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant. The most commonly used monopropellant is hydrazine, a chemical which is a strong reducing agent. The most common catalyst is granular alumina coated with iridium.

Most chemical-reaction monopropellant rocket systems consist of a fuel tank, usually a titanium or aluminium sphere, with an ethylene-propylene rubber container or a surface tension propellant management device filled with the fuel. The tank is then pressurized with helium or nitrogen, which pushes the fuel out to the motors. 

The rocket is fired when the computer sends direct current through a small electromagnet that opens the poppet valve. The firing is often very brief, a few milliseconds, and β€” if operated in air β€” would sound like a pebble thrown against a metal trash can; if on for long, it would make a piercing hiss.

Chemical-reaction monopropellants are not as efficient as some other propulsion technologies. Engineers choose them  when the need for simplicity and reliability outweigh the need for high delivered impulse. If the propulsion system must produce large amounts of thrust, or have a high specific impulse, as on the main motor of an interplanetary spacecraft, other technologies are used. 

By the way, how is the image related to this post? Let us know in comments.
~~
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  • A monopropellant rocket is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant. The most commonly used monopropellant is hydrazine, a chemical which is a strong reducing agent. The most common catalyst is granular alumina coated with iridium.

    Most chemical-reaction monopropellant rocket systems consist of a fuel tank, usually a titanium or aluminium sphere, with an ethylene-propylene rubber container or a surface tension propellant management device filled with the fuel. The tank is then pressurized with helium or nitrogen, which pushes the fuel out to the motors.

    The rocket is fired when the computer sends direct current through a small electromagnet that opens the poppet valve. The firing is often very brief, a few milliseconds, and β€” if operated in air β€” would sound like a pebble thrown against a metal trash can; if on for long, it would make a piercing hiss.

    Chemical-reaction monopropellants are not as efficient as some other propulsion technologies. Engineers choose them when the need for simplicity and reliability outweigh the need for high delivered impulse. If the propulsion system must produce large amounts of thrust, or have a high specific impulse, as on the main motor of an interplanetary spacecraft, other technologies are used.

    By the way, how is the image related to this post? Let us know in comments.
    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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  •  1,444  15  23 July, 2020
  • Liquid Propellants: These are the most commonly used propellants today. The common subtypes are: -

a. Liquid oxygen (LOX) and highly refined kerosene (RP-1). Used for the first stages of the Saturn V, Atlas V and Falcon 9. The equation for corresponding chemical reaction will be as follows 
2C12H26 + 37O2 β†’ 24CO2 + 26H2O

b. LOX and liquid hydrogen, used in the Space Shuttle orbiter and Saturn V upper stages. The chemical reaction is straightforward -

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

c. Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and hydrazine (N2H4), MMH, or UDMH. Used in military, orbital, and deep space rockets because both liquids are storable for long periods at reasonable temperatures and pressures.

d. Monopropellants - will be discussed tomorrow. Let us know in comments, what else you would like to be covered.

~~
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Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
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#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Liquid Propellants: These are the most commonly used propellants today. The common subtypes are: -

    a. Liquid oxygen (LOX) and highly refined kerosene (RP-1). Used for the first stages of the Saturn V, Atlas V and Falcon 9. The equation for corresponding chemical reaction will be as follows
    2C12H26 + 37O2 β†’ 24CO2 + 26H2O

    b. LOX and liquid hydrogen, used in the Space Shuttle orbiter and Saturn V upper stages. The chemical reaction is straightforward -

    2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

    c. Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and hydrazine (N2H4), MMH, or UDMH. Used in military, orbital, and deep space rockets because both liquids are storable for long periods at reasonable temperatures and pressures.

    d. Monopropellants - will be discussed tomorrow. Let us know in comments, what else you would like to be covered.

    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  906  6  22 July, 2020
  • Rocket propellants includes both the oxidizer and the fuel. In this post, we will understand the major types of rocket propellants.

Chemical Propellants: All chemical propellants are in a way a combination of fuel and oxidizer. The method in which these two are brought together leads to further classification in 5 types: solid, storable liquid, cryogenic liquid, a liquid monopropellant and hybrid solid/liquid bi-propellant. We will look into solid and liquid types in this article.

Solid propellants: These are composites with 3 major constituents – Oxidizer granules (like ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate) in a polymer binder (binding agent) with powders of compounds acting as fuel (examples: RDX, HMX). Many additives are added which includes plasticizers, stabilizers and burn rate modifiers.

Major Advantages: Easy to store/handle. Compact.
Major Disadvantages: Of all the disadvantages like a low specific impulse, temperature and pressure sensitivity, the most important disadvantage is of lack of real-time throttling.
Used in: Space Shuttle booster stages.

Liquid Propellants: These are the most commonly used propellants today. We will discuss more about it in our next post.

~~
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Free ebook on Falcon 9.
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Fundamentals of Rocket Science, 8h video series.
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  • Rocket propellants includes both the oxidizer and the fuel. In this post, we will understand the major types of rocket propellants.

    Chemical Propellants: All chemical propellants are in a way a combination of fuel and oxidizer. The method in which these two are brought together leads to further classification in 5 types: solid, storable liquid, cryogenic liquid, a liquid monopropellant and hybrid solid/liquid bi-propellant. We will look into solid and liquid types in this article.

    Solid propellants: These are composites with 3 major constituents – Oxidizer granules (like ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate) in a polymer binder (binding agent) with powders of compounds acting as fuel (examples: RDX, HMX). Many additives are added which includes plasticizers, stabilizers and burn rate modifiers.

    Major Advantages: Easy to store/handle. Compact.
    Major Disadvantages: Of all the disadvantages like a low specific impulse, temperature and pressure sensitivity, the most important disadvantage is of lack of real-time throttling.
    Used in: Space Shuttle booster stages.

    Liquid Propellants: These are the most commonly used propellants today. We will discuss more about it in our next post.

    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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  •  1,364  19  21 July, 2020
  • Yesterday we discussed how the rocket flew first straight up and then tilts. The tilt is gradual until an elliptical orbit is achieved. This technique of optimizing the trajectory of a spacecraft so that it attains the desired path is called a gravity turn or a zero-lift turn. This has two advantages:
 
1. Rocket maintains a very low or even zero angle of attack during the early stages of its ascent, thereby it experiences less aerodynamic stress.

2. The rocket uses Earth’s gravity to change its direction, and hence a certain amount of fuel is saved. This fuel can be used to accelerate it horizontally, in order to attain high speed, and more easily enter the orbit.

How orbit is reached?

Reaching an orbit while may appear complex but is fundamentally as simple as throwing a stone. Check the image.

When you throw a stone it lands at A. When a wrestler throws it, it reaches B. And when SpaceX throws it via Falcon 9, it reaches the orbit C and when it uses Falcon Heavy it reaches orbit D. What this means is, a rocket is similar to projectile motion just that its range is optimized in such a way to β€œkeep missing” the earth always. In a way a rocket (or a satellite) is "always falling – always missing" from the earth. Also, once an object is in orbit, it doesn’t need any sort of propulsion to remain in the orbit.

So, how fast you need to throw the stone? Share your thoughts in comments.

~~
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  • Yesterday we discussed how the rocket flew first straight up and then tilts. The tilt is gradual until an elliptical orbit is achieved. This technique of optimizing the trajectory of a spacecraft so that it attains the desired path is called a gravity turn or a zero-lift turn. This has two advantages:

    1. Rocket maintains a very low or even zero angle of attack during the early stages of its ascent, thereby it experiences less aerodynamic stress.

    2. The rocket uses Earth’s gravity to change its direction, and hence a certain amount of fuel is saved. This fuel can be used to accelerate it horizontally, in order to attain high speed, and more easily enter the orbit.

    How orbit is reached?

    Reaching an orbit while may appear complex but is fundamentally as simple as throwing a stone. Check the image.

    When you throw a stone it lands at A. When a wrestler throws it, it reaches B. And when SpaceX throws it via Falcon 9, it reaches the orbit C and when it uses Falcon Heavy it reaches orbit D. What this means is, a rocket is similar to projectile motion just that its range is optimized in such a way to β€œkeep missing” the earth always. In a way a rocket (or a satellite) is "always falling – always missing" from the earth. Also, once an object is in orbit, it doesn’t need any sort of propulsion to remain in the orbit.

    So, how fast you need to throw the stone? Share your thoughts in comments.

    ~~
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  •  1,102  25  20 July, 2020
  • Rocket Trajectory: Let’s understand in 3 parts. 

Part 1: Why do rockets follow a curved path? 

Short answer: Less fuel usage to get into the orbit around the Earth.

Long answer: We know that the air density of the atmosphere decreases upwards. At the start, the rocket needs great energy to overcome air resistance and gravity, so that it attains enough altitude when most of its fuel is used up. Hence, it flies vertically up very fast to cover the least distance in the thickest part of the atmosphere.

Now the rocket’s aim is not just to escape Earth’s gravity but more importantly it wants to enter Earth’s orbit and stay there. That sweet spot ensures the gravitational pull of the Earth is high enough to keep the rocket from drifting off into outer space; and low enough so that the rocket doesn’t have to spend fuel to keep itself from plummeting back to Earth.

Will cover more details in coming posts.

~~
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  • Rocket Trajectory: Let’s understand in 3 parts.

    Part 1: Why do rockets follow a curved path?

    Short answer: Less fuel usage to get into the orbit around the Earth.

    Long answer: We know that the air density of the atmosphere decreases upwards. At the start, the rocket needs great energy to overcome air resistance and gravity, so that it attains enough altitude when most of its fuel is used up. Hence, it flies vertically up very fast to cover the least distance in the thickest part of the atmosphere.

    Now the rocket’s aim is not just to escape Earth’s gravity but more importantly it wants to enter Earth’s orbit and stay there. That sweet spot ensures the gravitational pull of the Earth is high enough to keep the rocket from drifting off into outer space; and low enough so that the rocket doesn’t have to spend fuel to keep itself from plummeting back to Earth.

    Will cover more details in coming posts.

    ~~
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  •  2,993  23  19 July, 2020
  • Nozzles Part 3: More Technical Details

We have discussed the basics in last two days. Now let’s discuss the technicalities and the science behind it.

The rocket nozzle which is most frequently used in rockets is called as de Laval nozzle. It is named after its developer Gustaf de Laval, and first used in a rocket engine developed by Robert Goddard. Let’s consider a half-section of the nozzle (as it is symmetry around the longitudinal axis) as shown in the photo.

While solving this equation to get maximum thrust (using differential equation, momentum and continuity equation) we get maximum thrust at optimum expansion i.e. pe = pa.

A nozzle longer than this point results in net force in negative thrust direction due to over-expansion (as the pressure acting on the inner walls is less than pa).

The nozzle shorter than the optimal expansion position would result in a net force in positive thrust direction due to under-expansion (as the pressure acting on the inner walls is higher than pa).

But it should be noted that the exiting momentum is not fully regained from pe in case of shorter nozzle. Hence, nozzle design is only optimal at one altitude (as Pa decreases with height).

In the thrust equation: m is the mass flow rate of exhaust gases and U is exhaust velocity of exhaust gases. Thanks to @omarlr93 for correcting our mistake in previous post.

Did you learn anything new today? Was it informative? Let us know in the comments.

~~
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  • Nozzles Part 3: More Technical Details

    We have discussed the basics in last two days. Now let’s discuss the technicalities and the science behind it.

    The rocket nozzle which is most frequently used in rockets is called as de Laval nozzle. It is named after its developer Gustaf de Laval, and first used in a rocket engine developed by Robert Goddard. Let’s consider a half-section of the nozzle (as it is symmetry around the longitudinal axis) as shown in the photo.

    While solving this equation to get maximum thrust (using differential equation, momentum and continuity equation) we get maximum thrust at optimum expansion i.e. pe = pa.

    A nozzle longer than this point results in net force in negative thrust direction due to over-expansion (as the pressure acting on the inner walls is less than pa).

    The nozzle shorter than the optimal expansion position would result in a net force in positive thrust direction due to under-expansion (as the pressure acting on the inner walls is higher than pa).

    But it should be noted that the exiting momentum is not fully regained from pe in case of shorter nozzle. Hence, nozzle design is only optimal at one altitude (as Pa decreases with height).

    In the thrust equation: m is the mass flow rate of exhaust gases and U is exhaust velocity of exhaust gases. Thanks to @omarlr93 for correcting our mistake in previous post.

    Did you learn anything new today? Was it informative? Let us know in the comments.

    ~~
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  •  713  17  18 July, 2020
  • Yesterday we talked about rocket nozzle exhaust shapes. Continuing on further, check the above image.

For brief explanation, let’s just focus on two terms: Ambient Pressure (Pa) and Exit Pressure of exhaust (Pe). Maximum efficiency (i.e. maximum thrust) is obtained when Pa = Pe. For rockets travelling from the Earth to orbit, a simple nozzle design is only optimal at one altitude (as Pa decreases with height).

Case (a): At sea level, Pa > Pe this is called as β€œover expanded” which reduces the efficiency.

Case (b): At optimum altitude, Pa = Pe this is called as β€œoptimal expansion” which provides maximum efficiency.

Case (c): At higher altitude, Pa < Pe this is called as β€œunder expansion” which reduces the efficiency.

Tomorrow we will got a bit more in the technicalities. Stay tuned.

~~
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  • Yesterday we talked about rocket nozzle exhaust shapes. Continuing on further, check the above image.

    For brief explanation, let’s just focus on two terms: Ambient Pressure (Pa) and Exit Pressure of exhaust (Pe). Maximum efficiency (i.e. maximum thrust) is obtained when Pa = Pe. For rockets travelling from the Earth to orbit, a simple nozzle design is only optimal at one altitude (as Pa decreases with height).

    Case (a): At sea level, Pa > Pe this is called as β€œover expanded” which reduces the efficiency.

    Case (b): At optimum altitude, Pa = Pe this is called as β€œoptimal expansion” which provides maximum efficiency.

    Case (c): At higher altitude, Pa < Pe this is called as β€œunder expansion” which reduces the efficiency.

    Tomorrow we will got a bit more in the technicalities. Stay tuned.

    ~~
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  •  1,568  17  17 July, 2020
  • Have you noticed the rocket exhaust of Falcon 9 at different stages of its flight? Did you notice any differences in them? If not, then have a look at the image above.

To know the reason behind this, we need to first understand the importance of rocket nozzle. A rocket nozzle is basically used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning the propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities. Simply stating, the nozzle turns the static high pressure high temperature gas into rapidly moving gas at near-ambient pressure.

But why do you think the shapes are so different? Share your thoughts in the comments.

~~
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  • Have you noticed the rocket exhaust of Falcon 9 at different stages of its flight? Did you notice any differences in them? If not, then have a look at the image above.

    To know the reason behind this, we need to first understand the importance of rocket nozzle. A rocket nozzle is basically used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning the propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities. Simply stating, the nozzle turns the static high pressure high temperature gas into rapidly moving gas at near-ambient pressure.

    But why do you think the shapes are so different? Share your thoughts in the comments.

    ~~
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  •  1,841  34  16 July, 2020
  • Let's get our basics right on orbits!

What the satellite can see is determined by its height, eccentricity (circular, elliptical etc.) and inclination.

Various satellite orbit classification exists, but let’s limit to geocentric orbits to keep it brief.

1. Low Earth orbit (LEO) are at altitudes below 2,000 km (100–1,240 miles).

2. Medium Earth orbit (MEO) ranges in altitude from 2,000 km (1,240 miles) to just below geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi).

3. Geosynchronous orbit (GSO) and geostationary orbit (GEO) are orbits around Earth matching Earth's sidereal rotation period (relative to stars) at an altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi).

Though many consider GSO and GEO as synonyms, but they are not. Technically a GSO matches the Earth's rotational period, but it has a non-zero orbital inclination to the equator. Such satellites are not stationary above a given point on the equator, but may oscillate north and south during the course of a day.

Whereas, a geostationary orbit is defined as a geosynchronous orbit at zero inclination.

4. High Earth orbit: geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,240 miles).

Details of the other orbits & the ones above mentioned are coming in our weekly newsletter. Join via link in bio.

Have you ever heard of Molniya orbits? Let us know in the comments
~~
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  • Let's get our basics right on orbits!

    What the satellite can see is determined by its height, eccentricity (circular, elliptical etc.) and inclination.

    Various satellite orbit classification exists, but let’s limit to geocentric orbits to keep it brief.

    1. Low Earth orbit (LEO) are at altitudes below 2,000 km (100–1,240 miles).

    2. Medium Earth orbit (MEO) ranges in altitude from 2,000 km (1,240 miles) to just below geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi).

    3. Geosynchronous orbit (GSO) and geostationary orbit (GEO) are orbits around Earth matching Earth's sidereal rotation period (relative to stars) at an altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi).

    Though many consider GSO and GEO as synonyms, but they are not. Technically a GSO matches the Earth's rotational period, but it has a non-zero orbital inclination to the equator. Such satellites are not stationary above a given point on the equator, but may oscillate north and south during the course of a day.

    Whereas, a geostationary orbit is defined as a geosynchronous orbit at zero inclination.

    4. High Earth orbit: geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,240 miles).

    Details of the other orbits & the ones above mentioned are coming in our weekly newsletter. Join via link in bio.

    Have you ever heard of Molniya orbits? Let us know in the comments
    ~~
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  •  1,408  10  15 July, 2020
  • Space debris  encompasses both natural (meteoroid) and artificial (man-made) particles. While meteoroids orbit the sun, the artificial debris orbits the Earth. Hence, artificial debris is also called as orbital debris.

Orbital debris is any man-made object in orbit about the Earth which no longer serves a useful function. It includes nonfunctional spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicle stages, mission-related debris and fragmentation debris.

More than 500,000 pieces of debris, are tracked as they orbit the Earth. They all travel at speeds up to (37,000 kmph), fast enough for a relatively small piece of orbital debris to damage a satellite or a spacecraft. There are many millions of pieces of debris that are so small they can’t be tracked, which possess greatest risk to space missions.

In 1996, a French satellite was hit and damaged by debris from a French rocket that had exploded a decade earlier.

Even tiny paint flecks can damage a spacecraft when traveling at high velocities. In fact, a number of space shuttle windows have been replaced because of damage caused by material that was analyzed & shown to be paint flecks.

NASA has Haystack radar to detect debris in the size range of 5 mm - 30 cm. It statistically samples the debris population by "staring" at selected pointing angles and detecting debris that fly through its field-of-view.
~~
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  • Space debris encompasses both natural (meteoroid) and artificial (man-made) particles. While meteoroids orbit the sun, the artificial debris orbits the Earth. Hence, artificial debris is also called as orbital debris.

    Orbital debris is any man-made object in orbit about the Earth which no longer serves a useful function. It includes nonfunctional spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicle stages, mission-related debris and fragmentation debris.

    More than 500,000 pieces of debris, are tracked as they orbit the Earth. They all travel at speeds up to (37,000 kmph), fast enough for a relatively small piece of orbital debris to damage a satellite or a spacecraft. There are many millions of pieces of debris that are so small they can’t be tracked, which possess greatest risk to space missions.

    In 1996, a French satellite was hit and damaged by debris from a French rocket that had exploded a decade earlier.

    Even tiny paint flecks can damage a spacecraft when traveling at high velocities. In fact, a number of space shuttle windows have been replaced because of damage caused by material that was analyzed & shown to be paint flecks.

    NASA has Haystack radar to detect debris in the size range of 5 mm - 30 cm. It statistically samples the debris population by "staring" at selected pointing angles and detecting debris that fly through its field-of-view.
    ~~
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  •  992  21  14 July, 2020
  • Space Debris: Since only larger space objects can be catalogued and tracked, only these can be avoided through active measures or by evasive maneuvers. Smaller, uncatalogued objects can only be defeated by passive protection techniques, as used with the International Space Station (ISS).

NASA's main source of data for debris in the size range of 5 mm to 30 cm is the Haystack radar, now known as HUSIR. HUSIR statistically samples the debris population by staring at selected pointing angles and detecting debris that fly through its field-of-view. The data are used to characterize the debris population by size, altitude, and inclination. NASA also collects data from the Haystack Auxiliary Radar (HAX) located next to the main HUSIR antenna [photo]

Additionally, more than 100 different shields have been designed to protect the various critical components of the ISS, although all of the designs are modifications of three ISS primary shielding configurations: the Whipple bumper, the multishock (or stuffed Whipple) shield, and the mesh double-bumper shield.

~~
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  • Space Debris: Since only larger space objects can be catalogued and tracked, only these can be avoided through active measures or by evasive maneuvers. Smaller, uncatalogued objects can only be defeated by passive protection techniques, as used with the International Space Station (ISS).

    NASA's main source of data for debris in the size range of 5 mm to 30 cm is the Haystack radar, now known as HUSIR. HUSIR statistically samples the debris population by staring at selected pointing angles and detecting debris that fly through its field-of-view. The data are used to characterize the debris population by size, altitude, and inclination. NASA also collects data from the Haystack Auxiliary Radar (HAX) located next to the main HUSIR antenna [photo]

    Additionally, more than 100 different shields have been designed to protect the various critical components of the ISS, although all of the designs are modifications of three ISS primary shielding configurations: the Whipple bumper, the multishock (or stuffed Whipple) shield, and the mesh double-bumper shield.

    ~~
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  •  887  1  13 July, 2020
  • Why one is diverging, other is converging?
Share your thoughts in comments.

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  • Why one is diverging, other is converging?
    Share your thoughts in comments.

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  •  2,731  54  11 July, 2020
  • Escape Speed and Myths: Imagine gunfire. The bullet comes out with speed V. Now after it leaves the gun, it is under the influence of gravity, assuming negligible air drag, for this simple case. In this scenario, the speed needed for the bullet to "just" escape gravity is the escape speed.

It is the ONE TIME speed imparted to the body. Escape speed is for an β€œunpowered” object.

If the object can power itself (rocket/missile), then escape speed is irrelevant. If you have an "accelerating object", like a rocket, with enough power to keep on moving at a constant velocity of even 0.1 m/s, it is enough to achieve the same end result.

Myth: The term is called Escape β€œVelocity”.
Fact: It is speed, not velocity. Fire the bullet in any direction other than towards earth. It will do your job.

Myth: Heavier objects require higher Escape speed
Fact: It is independent of the mass of an object. So, be it 1kg, or 1000 kg, you need the same - one-time velocity imparted to achieve this. Higher mass just means more energy required. As Kinetic energy and potential energy will both contain the "mass" of the object terms.

Myth: For a rocket to reach orbit, it must cross 11.2 Km/s.
Fact: Not needed as a rocket is a powered object. It carries its own energy source.

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  • Escape Speed and Myths: Imagine gunfire. The bullet comes out with speed V. Now after it leaves the gun, it is under the influence of gravity, assuming negligible air drag, for this simple case. In this scenario, the speed needed for the bullet to "just" escape gravity is the escape speed.

    It is the ONE TIME speed imparted to the body. Escape speed is for an β€œunpowered” object.

    If the object can power itself (rocket/missile), then escape speed is irrelevant. If you have an "accelerating object", like a rocket, with enough power to keep on moving at a constant velocity of even 0.1 m/s, it is enough to achieve the same end result.

    Myth: The term is called Escape β€œVelocity”.
    Fact: It is speed, not velocity. Fire the bullet in any direction other than towards earth. It will do your job.

    Myth: Heavier objects require higher Escape speed
    Fact: It is independent of the mass of an object. So, be it 1kg, or 1000 kg, you need the same - one-time velocity imparted to achieve this. Higher mass just means more energy required. As Kinetic energy and potential energy will both contain the "mass" of the object terms.

    Myth: For a rocket to reach orbit, it must cross 11.2 Km/s.
    Fact: Not needed as a rocket is a powered object. It carries its own energy source.

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  •  1,015  9  10 July, 2020
  • Discussing about NASA’s human rating certification, to achieve such a level, systems must implement additional processes, procedures, and requirements necessary to produce human-rated space systems that protect the safety of crew members and passengers on NASA space missions. Human-rating is an integral part of all program activities throughout the life cycle of the system which includes:

  Design and development
  Test and verification
  Program management and control
  Flight readiness certification
  Mission operations
  Sustaining engineering
  Maintenance, upgrades, and disposal.

The three broad requirements (General Requirements, Safety and Reliability Requirements,  Human-in-the-Loop Requirements) have further sub-categories.

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  • Discussing about NASA’s human rating certification, to achieve such a level, systems must implement additional processes, procedures, and requirements necessary to produce human-rated space systems that protect the safety of crew members and passengers on NASA space missions. Human-rating is an integral part of all program activities throughout the life cycle of the system which includes:

    Design and development
    Test and verification
    Program management and control
    Flight readiness certification
    Mission operations
    Sustaining engineering
    Maintenance, upgrades, and disposal.

    The three broad requirements (General Requirements, Safety and Reliability Requirements, Human-in-the-Loop Requirements) have further sub-categories.

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  •  778  5  9 July, 2020
  • The Space shuttle carried 2 solid rocket boosters (SRBs). They each are made up of 4 segments and are bolted together to make one big long rocket motor. The segments have an O-ring – a type of gasket to keep hot exhaust gasses from leaking out.

In the extremely cold weather at the time of launch, one of the gaskets, shrunk. This allowed hot gas to begin leaking out of the joint. The SRBs are held on either side of the big fuel tank by metal struts. The hot gasses melted through one of the struts and suddenly the solid rocket booster was only attached at the front. It swiveled around (too quickly to see on the videotape) and the pointy front end punched a hole in the tank. This caused the big fuel tank, which was full of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen fuel, to come apart at the seams under the high-speed wind.

The solid rocket boosters, now free-flying and not under anyone's control, continued onward in random directions. A few moments later, the Range Safety Officer on the ground radioed a self-destruct command to the boosters, so that they wouldn't become dangerous to the crowds of people watching. They exploded harmlessly and the pieces dropped into the ocean.

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  • The Space shuttle carried 2 solid rocket boosters (SRBs). They each are made up of 4 segments and are bolted together to make one big long rocket motor. The segments have an O-ring – a type of gasket to keep hot exhaust gasses from leaking out.

    In the extremely cold weather at the time of launch, one of the gaskets, shrunk. This allowed hot gas to begin leaking out of the joint. The SRBs are held on either side of the big fuel tank by metal struts. The hot gasses melted through one of the struts and suddenly the solid rocket booster was only attached at the front. It swiveled around (too quickly to see on the videotape) and the pointy front end punched a hole in the tank. This caused the big fuel tank, which was full of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen fuel, to come apart at the seams under the high-speed wind.

    The solid rocket boosters, now free-flying and not under anyone's control, continued onward in random directions. A few moments later, the Range Safety Officer on the ground radioed a self-destruct command to the boosters, so that they wouldn't become dangerous to the crowds of people watching. They exploded harmlessly and the pieces dropped into the ocean.

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  •  1,483  34  8 July, 2020
  • During the launch of STS-107, Columbia's 28th mission, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left-wing of the orbiter.

The shuttle's main fuel tank was covered in thermal insulation foam intended to prevent ice from forming when the tank is full of liquid hydrogen and oxygen. Such ice could damage the shuttle if shed during lift-off. At 81.7 seconds after launch from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39-A, a suitcase-sized piece of foam broke off from the external tank (ET), striking Columbia's left-wing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels.

As demonstrated by ground experiments conducted by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, this likely created a six-to-ten-inch-diameter (15 to 25 cm) hole, allowing hot gases to enter the wing when Columbia later re-entered the atmosphere. At the time of the foam strike, the orbiter was at an altitude of about 65,600 feet (20.0 km; 12.42 mi), traveling at Mach 2.46.

Bipod ramp insulation had been observed falling off, in whole or in part, on four previous flights: STS-7 (1983), STS-32 (1990), STS-50 (1992), and most recently STS-112 (just two launches before STS-107). All affected shuttle missions completed successfully. NASA management came to refer to this phenomenon as "foam shedding".

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  • During the launch of STS-107, Columbia's 28th mission, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left-wing of the orbiter.

    The shuttle's main fuel tank was covered in thermal insulation foam intended to prevent ice from forming when the tank is full of liquid hydrogen and oxygen. Such ice could damage the shuttle if shed during lift-off. At 81.7 seconds after launch from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39-A, a suitcase-sized piece of foam broke off from the external tank (ET), striking Columbia's left-wing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels.

    As demonstrated by ground experiments conducted by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, this likely created a six-to-ten-inch-diameter (15 to 25 cm) hole, allowing hot gases to enter the wing when Columbia later re-entered the atmosphere. At the time of the foam strike, the orbiter was at an altitude of about 65,600 feet (20.0 km; 12.42 mi), traveling at Mach 2.46.

    Bipod ramp insulation had been observed falling off, in whole or in part, on four previous flights: STS-7 (1983), STS-32 (1990), STS-50 (1992), and most recently STS-112 (just two launches before STS-107). All affected shuttle missions completed successfully. NASA management came to refer to this phenomenon as "foam shedding".

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  •  991  11  7 July, 2020
  • Electronic Nose
One you are in space station, not only is there a minor loss in olfactory aptitude but there's also a lot of new smells associated with ISS thanks to the way the air circulates through the space station. The nose would be used to know when food is going stale before it actually goes stale, locating mold, and discovering harmful levels of Carbon dioxide before the amount becomes problematic. After testing the nose in microgravity, it can then be used in Earthbound applications.

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  • Electronic Nose
    One you are in space station, not only is there a minor loss in olfactory aptitude but there's also a lot of new smells associated with ISS thanks to the way the air circulates through the space station. The nose would be used to know when food is going stale before it actually goes stale, locating mold, and discovering harmful levels of Carbon dioxide before the amount becomes problematic. After testing the nose in microgravity, it can then be used in Earthbound applications.

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  •  544  5  6 July, 2020
  • The fragility of the human body

The effects of the space environment on the human body during long duration spaceflight are of significant interest if we want to one day venture far beyond the Earth. A crewed journey to Mars, for example, may take a year, and the same time again for the return leg.

Microgravity research on the ISS has demonstrated that the human body would lose considerable bone and muscle mass on such a mission. Mitigation technology, involving the use of resistive exercise devices, has shown that it is possible to substantially alleviate bone and muscle loss. Coupled with other studies into appropriate nutrition and drug use, these investigations may lead to improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition affecting millions of people across the globe.

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  • The fragility of the human body

    The effects of the space environment on the human body during long duration spaceflight are of significant interest if we want to one day venture far beyond the Earth. A crewed journey to Mars, for example, may take a year, and the same time again for the return leg.

    Microgravity research on the ISS has demonstrated that the human body would lose considerable bone and muscle mass on such a mission. Mitigation technology, involving the use of resistive exercise devices, has shown that it is possible to substantially alleviate bone and muscle loss. Coupled with other studies into appropriate nutrition and drug use, these investigations may lead to improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition affecting millions of people across the globe.

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  •  1,657  9  5 July, 2020
  • Terraforming Mars would entail three major interlaced changes: building up the magnetosphere, building up the atmosphere, and raising the temperature. Because its atmosphere consists mainly of CO2, a known greenhouse gas, once Mars begins to heat, the CO2 may help to keep thermal energy near the surface.

Moreover, as it heats, more CO2 should enter the atmosphere from the frozen reserves on the poles, enhancing the greenhouse effect. This means that the two processes of building the atmosphere and heating it would augment each other, favoring terraforming. However, it would be difficult to keep the atmosphere together because of the lack of a protective global magnetic field against erosion by the solar wind.

To protect Mars’s atmosphere, NASA scientist Jim Green proposed a concept of placing a magnetic dipole field between the planet and Sun to protect it from high-energy solar particles. If constructed, the shield may allow the planet to restore its atmosphere. Simulations indicate that within years, the planet would be able to achieve half the atmospheric pressure of Earth. Without solar winds stripping away at the planet, frozen carbon dioxide at the ice caps on either pole would begin to sublimate (change from a solid into a gas) and warm the equator. Ice caps would begin to melt to form an ocean.

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  • Terraforming Mars would entail three major interlaced changes: building up the magnetosphere, building up the atmosphere, and raising the temperature. Because its atmosphere consists mainly of CO2, a known greenhouse gas, once Mars begins to heat, the CO2 may help to keep thermal energy near the surface.

    Moreover, as it heats, more CO2 should enter the atmosphere from the frozen reserves on the poles, enhancing the greenhouse effect. This means that the two processes of building the atmosphere and heating it would augment each other, favoring terraforming. However, it would be difficult to keep the atmosphere together because of the lack of a protective global magnetic field against erosion by the solar wind.

    To protect Mars’s atmosphere, NASA scientist Jim Green proposed a concept of placing a magnetic dipole field between the planet and Sun to protect it from high-energy solar particles. If constructed, the shield may allow the planet to restore its atmosphere. Simulations indicate that within years, the planet would be able to achieve half the atmospheric pressure of Earth. Without solar winds stripping away at the planet, frozen carbon dioxide at the ice caps on either pole would begin to sublimate (change from a solid into a gas) and warm the equator. Ice caps would begin to melt to form an ocean.

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  •  1,070  10  4 July, 2020
  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

~~
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  • A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.

    Three types of space suits exist for different purposes -

    IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity).

    IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable.

    IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change.

    EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.

    ~~
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  •  1,090  7  3 July, 2020
  • Any guesses on what this famous picture is related to??
.
The photo is taken when Apollo 7 transmitted the first live television broadcast aboard a crewed American spacecraft.
~~
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  • Any guesses on what this famous picture is related to??
    .
    The photo is taken when Apollo 7 transmitted the first live television broadcast aboard a crewed American spacecraft.
    ~~
    Check link in bio or DM us for exciting stuffs mentioned πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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  •  440  5  2 July, 2020
  • The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo command module (CM) and Apollo Lunar Module (LM). The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft.

AGC was designed to run a very small set of specifically designed programs needed to run a mission to the Moon, things like checking the guidance platform alignment and firing the engines. Everything on an Apollo mission was done through the computer and it took more than 10,000 keystrokes to get one mission to the Moon and back.

Astronauts communicated with the AGC using a numeric display and keyboard called the DSKY (for "display and keyboard", pronounced as "DIS-kee") as shown in Figure 1. The AGC and its DSKY user interface were developed in the early 1960s for the Apollo program by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory and first flew in 1966. The AGC was the first silicon integrated circuit based computer.

~~
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  • The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo command module (CM) and Apollo Lunar Module (LM). The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft.

    AGC was designed to run a very small set of specifically designed programs needed to run a mission to the Moon, things like checking the guidance platform alignment and firing the engines. Everything on an Apollo mission was done through the computer and it took more than 10,000 keystrokes to get one mission to the Moon and back.

    Astronauts communicated with the AGC using a numeric display and keyboard called the DSKY (for "display and keyboard", pronounced as "DIS-kee") as shown in Figure 1. The AGC and its DSKY user interface were developed in the early 1960s for the Apollo program by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory and first flew in 1966. The AGC was the first silicon integrated circuit based computer.

    ~~
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  •  836  12  30 June, 2020
  • From the beginning of the human space journey to the other essentials which are being an integral part, the use of astronauts, which is commonly known as 'Spacesuit' Except for this special dress, humans can not survive in adverse and harsh environments of space.
 
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon, and en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, and to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum. A self-contained oxygen supply and environmental control system is frequently employed to allow complete freedom of movement, independent of the spacecraft.

Three types of space suits exist for different purposes: IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity). IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable. IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change. EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks.
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#aerofactz #aviation
  • From the beginning of the human space journey to the other essentials which are being an integral part, the use of astronauts, which is commonly known as 'Spacesuit' Except for this special dress, humans can not survive in adverse and harsh environments of space.

    A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon, and en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, and to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum. A self-contained oxygen supply and environmental control system is frequently employed to allow complete freedom of movement, independent of the spacecraft.

    Three types of space suits exist for different purposes: IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity). IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable. IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change. EVA suits, such as the EMU, are used outside spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks.
    Follow @aerofactz
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    #aerofactz #aviation

  •  6  0  29 June, 2020
  • Hubble Telescope....
πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€
Hubble is a Cassegrain reflector telescope. Light from celestial objects travels down a tube, is collected by a bowl-like, inwardly curved primary mirror and reflected toward a smaller, dome-shaped, outwardly curved secondary mirror.

The secondary mirror bounces the light back to the primary mirror and through a hole in its center. The light is focused on a small area called the focal plane, where it is picked up by its various science instruments.

Hubble’s science instruments, the astronomer’s eyes to the universe, work together or individually to provide the observations. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way. Hubble holds two main varieties of instruments: cameras, which capture Hubble's famed images, and spectrographs, which break light into colors for analysis.
Hubble's current suite of instruments includes: Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS). 
Follow @aerofactz 
#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Hubble Telescope....
    πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€πŸš€
    Hubble is a Cassegrain reflector telescope. Light from celestial objects travels down a tube, is collected by a bowl-like, inwardly curved primary mirror and reflected toward a smaller, dome-shaped, outwardly curved secondary mirror.

    The secondary mirror bounces the light back to the primary mirror and through a hole in its center. The light is focused on a small area called the focal plane, where it is picked up by its various science instruments.

    Hubble’s science instruments, the astronomer’s eyes to the universe, work together or individually to provide the observations. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way. Hubble holds two main varieties of instruments: cameras, which capture Hubble's famed images, and spectrographs, which break light into colors for analysis.
    Hubble's current suite of instruments includes: Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS).
    Follow @aerofactz
    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  5  0  29 June, 2020

Top #merlineengine Posts

  • Uninterrupted SpaceX Booster Landing Footage πŸš€
β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’
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πŸ‘¨β€πŸš€ Follow @milkyway_scispace for more
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πŸ“Έ Credits @spacex
  • Uninterrupted SpaceX Booster Landing Footage πŸš€
    β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’ β€’
    .
    πŸ‘¨β€πŸš€ Follow @milkyway_scispace for more
    .
    πŸ“Έ Credits @spacex

  •  1,063  11  19 March, 2019
  • Can’t beat the @theclassof45 πŸ”₯
  • Can’t beat the @theclassof45 πŸ”₯

  •  365  4  5 January, 2020
  • Falcon 9 Heavy and it's three launches. Eagerly waiting for it's next launch. But the wait is quite long (3rd quarter of 2020)!!
To learn Rocket Science along with Falcon 9 rocket's in depth details check the link in bio for attractive discounts.
.
Credits: SpaceX
.
Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff! . .
#falcon #spacex #launch #rocketlaunch #spacefacts #spacenews #space #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #landing #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physics #physicslove #dragon #thermodynamics #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Falcon 9 Heavy and it's three launches. Eagerly waiting for it's next launch. But the wait is quite long (3rd quarter of 2020)!!
    To learn Rocket Science along with Falcon 9 rocket's in depth details check the link in bio for attractive discounts.
    .
    Credits: SpaceX
    .
    Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff! . .
    #falcon #spacex #launch #rocketlaunch #spacefacts #spacenews #space #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #landing #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physics #physicslove #dragon #thermodynamics #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  2,272  16  21 November, 2019
  • Rocket Trajectory: Let’s understand in 3 parts. 

Part 1: Why do rockets follow a curved path? 

Short answer: Less fuel usage to get into the orbit around the Earth.

Long answer: We know that the air density of the atmosphere decreases upwards. At the start, the rocket needs great energy to overcome air resistance and gravity, so that it attains enough altitude when most of its fuel is used up. Hence, it flies vertically up very fast to cover the least distance in the thickest part of the atmosphere.

Now the rocket’s aim is not just to escape Earth’s gravity but more importantly it wants to enter Earth’s orbit and stay there. That sweet spot ensures the gravitational pull of the Earth is high enough to keep the rocket from drifting off into outer space; and low enough so that the rocket doesn’t have to spend fuel to keep itself from plummeting back to Earth.

Will cover more details in coming posts.

~~
Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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  • Rocket Trajectory: Let’s understand in 3 parts.

    Part 1: Why do rockets follow a curved path?

    Short answer: Less fuel usage to get into the orbit around the Earth.

    Long answer: We know that the air density of the atmosphere decreases upwards. At the start, the rocket needs great energy to overcome air resistance and gravity, so that it attains enough altitude when most of its fuel is used up. Hence, it flies vertically up very fast to cover the least distance in the thickest part of the atmosphere.

    Now the rocket’s aim is not just to escape Earth’s gravity but more importantly it wants to enter Earth’s orbit and stay there. That sweet spot ensures the gravitational pull of the Earth is high enough to keep the rocket from drifting off into outer space; and low enough so that the rocket doesn’t have to spend fuel to keep itself from plummeting back to Earth.

    Will cover more details in coming posts.

    ~~
    Check link in bio for πŸ‘‡πŸ‘‡
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    Free ebook on Falcon 9.
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  •  2,993  23  19 July, 2020
  • Renders of the interior layout of the Starhopper. 
What amenities you would expect to be there on the Starship to enable 7-8 months flight to Mars? Do let us know in the comments. .
Credit: NASAspaceflight forum
.
Check the link in bio for Rocket Science Course with Falcon 9. .
Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff! . .
#spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Renders of the interior layout of the Starhopper.
    What amenities you would expect to be there on the Starship to enable 7-8 months flight to Mars? Do let us know in the comments. .
    Credit: NASAspaceflight forum
    .
    Check the link in bio for Rocket Science Course with Falcon 9. .
    Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff! . .
    #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  2,630  37  3 November, 2019
  • Fundamentals of liquid rocket engines. Let's start from top. You have two tanks - one with fuel other with oxygen. Both together are called propellants. They all are stored under high pressure. 
Next, pumps are used to "pump" the high pressure propellants into "higher" pressure combustion chamber (where already combustion is happening). The incoming propellants react and dance, producing exhaust gases which are sent to the mighty nozzle.

The nozzle is a great friend. It takes the high speed gases and expands it further from throat onwards, thereby increasing it's velocity.

When some 100+ factors work correctly which heavily include timing and valves and pumps, a beautiful phenomena called  Liftoff happens, of which you would have seen ton of photos from @johnkrausphotos. ;-) All clear? Tell us your queries in comments and we will talk about it. 
One question: What fraction of the cost of rocket is propellants?

You may like to check the link in bio for more cool stuff.

Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff. Have a friend who is interested in Rocket Science? She will love you if you share this with her. :-) #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove
  • Fundamentals of liquid rocket engines. Let's start from top. You have two tanks - one with fuel other with oxygen. Both together are called propellants. They all are stored under high pressure.
    Next, pumps are used to "pump" the high pressure propellants into "higher" pressure combustion chamber (where already combustion is happening). The incoming propellants react and dance, producing exhaust gases which are sent to the mighty nozzle.

    The nozzle is a great friend. It takes the high speed gases and expands it further from throat onwards, thereby increasing it's velocity.

    When some 100+ factors work correctly which heavily include timing and valves and pumps, a beautiful phenomena called Liftoff happens, of which you would have seen ton of photos from @johnkrausphotos. ;-) All clear? Tell us your queries in comments and we will talk about it.
    One question: What fraction of the cost of rocket is propellants?

    You may like to check the link in bio for more cool stuff.

    Follow @spacexfalcontech for more such stuff. Have a friend who is interested in Rocket Science? She will love you if you share this with her. :-) #spacexlaunch #spacex #spacexlanding #spacestation #spacefacts #spaceflight #spacecraft #spacexrocketlaunch #spacexfalconheavy #falcon9 #falcon9launch #falcon9landing #falconheavy #BFR #starship #droneship #merlineengine #onlinecourses #onlinecourse #rocketscience #physicsfun #physicsclass #physicslove #dragon #physics_lab #aerospace #aerospaceengineer #rocketslove

  •  2,289  49  7 December, 2019